Stability contour maps with barrel cutters considering the tool orientation

  • Gorka Urbikain
  • Daniel Olvera
  • Luis Norberto López de Lacalle


The geometry of rotary aircraft engine components is usually defined by thin mechanical elements and complex surfaces that are only achievable by 5-axis machining due to either limited access or the design itself. Such thin-walled characteristics make these components susceptible to vibrations while machining and usually require careful manipulation of the toolpath parameters to minimize cutting forces and vibration. Moreover, the tool suppliers’ approach leans towards the feature-build design of cutter geometry to increase the productivity and quality of a machined surface. Some examples of those recent improvements for rotary aircraft engine components are barrel-shaped tools that attempt to increase the contact radius on the tool-part interface to minimize step-over while conserving the scallop height to meet roughness tolerances. This research aims to fill a gap in the current literature by proposing a stability model for barrel-shaped tools. Stability contour maps make use of a mechanistic dynamic force model for barrel-shaped tools. The force model is also capable of including tool runout and orientation angles, tilt and lead, as named in most CAM software. By simulating dynamic forces on the time domain, a contour map is presented to address unstable vibrations. Since forced vibrations and surface location error (SLE) may also appear when milling aircraft parts, SLE and surface roughness are also determined. Finally, given the complexity and number of parameters, validation of the stability maps is performed through experimental chatter tests using a thin wall component.


Barrel cutters Milling Chatter Contour maps Thin walls 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Altan T, Lilly B, Yen YC (2001) Manufacturing of dies and molds. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 50(2):404–422. doi: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)62988-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lazoglu I, Boz Y, Erdimb H (2011) Five-axis milling mechanics for complex free form surfaces. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 60:117–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Davim JP (2012) Machining of complex sculptured surfaces. Springer-Verlag, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Campa FJ, López de Lacalle LN, Urbikain G, Ruiz D (2008) Definition of cutting conditions for thin-to-thin milling of aerospace low rigidity parts. ASME Int Manuf Sci Eng Conf 359–368Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harik RF, Gong H, Bernard A (2013) 5-axis flank milling: a state-of-the-art review. Comp Aid Des 45(3):796–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Artetxe E, Urbikain G, Lamikiz A, López de Lacalle LN, González R (2015) A mechanistic cutting force model for new barrel end mills. Proc Eng 132:553–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    Oxley PLB (1989) Mechanics of machining: an analytical approach to assessing machinability. Publisher, Ellis HorwoodGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Armarego E, Deshpande NP (1993) Force prediction models and CAD/CAM software for helical tooth milling processes. II. Peripheral milling operations. Int J Prod Res 31(10):2319–2336CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Altintas Y, Budak E (1995) Analytical prediction of stability lobes in milling. Trans ASME J Eng Ind 44:357–362Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pang L, Hosseini A, Hussein HM, Deiab I, Kishawy HA (2015) Application of a new thick zone model to the cutting mechanics during end-milling. Int J Mech Sci 96–97:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wan M, Ma YC, Feng J, Zhang WH (2016) Study of static and dynamic ploughing mechanisms by establishing generalized model with static milling forces. Int J Mech Sci 114:120–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moradi H, Vossoughi G, Movahhedy MR (2014) Bifurcation analysis of nonlinear milling process with tool wear and process damping: sub-harmonic resonance under regenerative chatter. Int J Mech Sci 85:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yang Y, Zhang WH, Ma YC, Wan M (2016) Chatter prediction for the peripheral milling of thin-walled workpieces with curved surfaces. Int J MachTools Manuf 109:36–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang M, Gao L, Zheng Y (2014) Prediction of regenerative chatter in the high-speed vertical milling of thin-walled workpiece made of titanium alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 72(5):707–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Urbikain G, Campa FJ, Zulaika JJ, López de Lacalle LN, Alonso MA, Collado V (2015) Preventing chatter vibrations in heavy-duty turning operations in large horizontal lathes. J Sound Vib 340:317–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tanga WX, Songa QH, Yub SQ, Suna SS, Lia BB, Dua B, Aia X (2009) Prediction of chatter stability in high-speed finishing end milling considering multi-mode dynamics. J Mat Proc Tech 209(5):2585–2591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wan M, Ma YC, Zhang WH, Yang Y (2015b) Study on the construction mechanism of stability lobes in milling process with multiple modes. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 79:589–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Okafor AC, Sultan AA (2015) Development of a mechanistic cutting force model for wavy-edge bull-nose helical end-milling of Inconel 718 under emulsion cooling strategy. Appl Math Model 40:2637–2660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lazoglu I (2003) Sculpture surface machining: a generalized model of ball-end milling force system. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 43:453–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oztuk E, Budak E (2010) Dynamics and stability of five-axis ball-end milling. J Manuf Sci Eng 132(2):1–13Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim GM, Ko SL (2006) Improvement of cutting simulation using octree method. Int J Adv Manuf Tech 28:1152–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jiang F, Zhang T, Yan L (2016) Analytical model of milling forces based on time-variant sculptured shear surface. Int J Mech Sci 115-116:190–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferry WB, Altintas Y (2008) Virtual five-axis flank milling of jet engine impellers-part I: mechanics of five-axis flank milling. J Manuf Sci Eng 130:1–11Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wan M, Altintas Y (2014) Mechanics and dynamics of thread milling process. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 87:16–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li Z, Liu Q, Ming X, Wang X, Dong Y (2014) Cutting force prediction and analytical solution of regenerative chatter stability for helical milling operation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 73(1):433–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schmitz TL, Couey J, Marsh E, Mauntler N, Hughes D (2007) Runout effects in milling: surface finish, surface location error, and stability. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 47:841–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhang XJ, Xiong ZH, Ding Y, Huang XD, Ding H (2014) A synthetical stability method for cutting parameter optimization to assure surface location accuracy in flexible part milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 75:1131–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang X, Zhang J, Pang B, Wu DD, Zheng XW, Zhao WX (2016) An efficient approach for milling dynamics modeling and analysis with varying time delay and cutter runout effect. Int J Adv Manuf Technol:1–16. doi: 10.1007/s00170-016-8671-8
  31. 31.
    Wan M, Kilic ZM, Altintas Y (2015) Mechanics and dynamics of multifunctional tools. J Manuf Sci Eng 137(1) 011019-011019-11 10.1115/1.4028749Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ying H, Zhitong C, Rufeng X (2016) Research on five-axis flank milling of convex edge surface with a concave cutter. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 1–9.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Luo M, Yan D, Wu B (2015) Barrel cutter design and toolpath planning for high-efficiency machining of freeform surface. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 85(9):2495–2503. doi: 10.1007/s00170-015-8113-z Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Meng FJ, Chen ZT, Xu RF, Li X (2014) Optimal barrel cutter selection for the CNC machining of blisk. Comp Aid Des 53:36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yan D, Zhang D, Luo M (2015) Optimization of barrel cutter for five-axis flank-milling based on approximation of tool envelope surface. Comp-Aid Des Appl 12(6):717–722Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chaves-Jacob J, Poulachon G, Duc E (2009) New approach to 5-axis flank milling of free-from surface: computation of adapted tool shape. Comp Aid Des 41:918–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Insperger T, Mann BP, Surman T, Stépán G (2008) On the chatter frequencies of milling process with runout. Int J Mach Tool Manu 48:1081–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mann BP, Insperger T, Bayly PV, Stépán G (2003) Stability of up-milling and down-milling, part 2: experimental verification. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 43(1):35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gorka Urbikain
    • 1
  • Daniel Olvera
    • 1
  • Luis Norberto López de Lacalle
    • 1
  1. 1.Mechanical EngineeringUniversidad del Pais VascoBilbaoSpain

Personalised recommendations