Local–global strategy for the prediction of residual stresses in FSW processes
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This work describes the local–global strategy proposed for the computation of residual stresses in friction stir welding (FSW) processes. A coupling strategy between the analysis of the process zone nearby the pin tool (local level analysis) and the simulation carried out for the entire structure to be welded (global level analysis) is implemented to accurately predict the temperature histories and, thereby, the residual stresses in FSW. As a first step, the local problem solves the material stirring as well as the heat generation induced by the pin and shoulder rotation at the heat affected zone. The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation is adopted to deal with the rotation of complex pin shapes. A thermo-rigid-viscoplastic constitutive law is employed to characterize the viscous flow of the material, driven by the high-strain rates induced by the FSW process. A mixed temperature–velocity–pressure finite element technology is used to deal with the isochoric nature of the strains. The output of this local analysis is the heat generated either by plastic dissipation or by friction, and it is used as the power input for the welding analysis at structural (global) level. The global problem is tackled within the Lagrangian framework together with a thermo-elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model. In addition, in this case, the mixed temperature–displacement–pressure format is introduced to deal with the deviatoric nature of the plastic strains. The outcomes of this analysis are the distortions and the residual stresses after welding. The material used in this work is stainless steel 304 L; however, the methodology presented is applicable to a wide range of materials. The proposed numerical strategy is validated by the experimental evidence.
KeywordsFSW Local–global analysis Residual stresses Coupled thermo-mechanical analysis Finite element method ALE framework
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