Main benefits obtained from a successful JIT implementation

  • Jorge L. García Alcaraz
  • Aidé A. Maldonado Macías
  • Diana Jazmín Prieto Luevano
  • Julio Blanco Fernández
  • Alfonso de Jesús Gil López
  • Emilio Jiménez Macías


Literature has reported 31 benefits obtained by companies after a successful JIT implementation. However, this research reduces the list by means of a data reduction technique to identify those essential benefits that must be pursued. The 31 benefits are integrated in a questionnaire that is administered to 144 production managers in maquiladoras in Mexico to measure the extent to which they are obtained according to respondents. One the one hand, a validation process and descriptive analysis are carried out for every benefit by considering their median values as a measure of central tendency and interquartile range values as a measure of dispersion. On the other hand, data reduction was achieved by means of a factor analysis based on principal components and varimax rotation. Four main factors related to JIT benefits are identified after the factor analysis, which explain 67.27 % of total variance of data. Identified factors concern inventory management, production process, human resources, and economic benefits.


JIT benefits Factor analysis Data reduction JIT implementation Maquiladora 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Singh S, Garg D (2011) JIT system: concepts, benefits and motivation in Indian industries. Int J Manag Bus Stud 1(1):26–30Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kumar V (2010) JIT based quality management: concepts and implications in Indian context. Int J Eng Sci Tech 2(1):40–50Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gupta A (2011) A conceptual JIT model of service quality. Int J Eng Sci Tech 3(3):2214–2227Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marín F, Delgado J (2000) The just in time technique and its repercussion in production systems. Economía Industrial 331:34–41Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Meixell MJ, Gargeya VB (2005) Global supply chain design: a literature review and critique. Transport Res E Logist Transport Rev 41(6):531–550, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhu Q, Sarkis J, Lai K-h (2011) An institutional theoretic investigation on the links between internationalization of Chinese manufacturers and their environmental supply chain management. Resour Conserv Recycl 55:623–630, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ngai EWT, Peng S, Alexander P, Moon KKL (2014) Decision support and intelligent systems in the textile and apparel supply chain: an academic review of research articles. Expert Syst Appl 41(1):81–91, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Machuca J (2002) JIT facing the New Millennium. Int J Prod Econ 80(2):131–134, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Green KW, Inman RA, Birou LM, Whitten D (2014) Total JIT (T-JIT) and its impact on supply chain competency and organizational performance. Int J Prod Econ 147(Part A):125–135, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chang D, Lee SM (1996) The impact of critical success factors of JIT implementation on organizational performance. Prod Plann Contr 7(3):329–338. doi: 10.1080/09537289608930358 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ohno T (1982) How the Toyota Production System was Created. Japanese Econ Stud 10(4):83–101. doi: 10.2753/JES1097-203X100483 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Matsui Y (2007) An empirical analysis of just-in-time production in Japanese manufacturing companies. Int J Prod Econ 108(1–2):153–164, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown KA, Mitchell TR (1991) A comparison of Just-in-Time and batch manufacturing: the role of performance obstacles. Acad Manag J 34(4):906–917. doi: 10.2307/256395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wakchaure V, Venkatesh M, Kallurkar S (2006) Review of JIT practices in Indian manufacturing industries. 2006. IEEE Int Conf Manag Innov Technol 2(34):1099–1103. doi: 10.1109/ICMIT.2006.262393 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fullerton R, McWatters C (2002) The role of performance measures and incentive systems in relation to the degree of JIT implementation. Acc Organ Soc 27(8):711–735, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cai-feng L (2009) Research on a fast delivery production system: just-in-time production system. Can Soc Sci 5(3):121Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Groenevelt H (1993) Chapter 12 The just-in-time system. In: Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science, vol Volume 4. Elsevier, pp 629-670. doi:
  18. 18.
    Ahmed NU, Tunc EA, Montagno RV (1991) A comparative study of US manufacturing firms at various stages of just-in-time implementation. Int J Prod Res 29(4):787–802. doi: 10.1080/00207549108930102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schonberger RJ (1982) Some observations on the advantages and implementation issues of just-in-time production systems. J Oper Manag 3(1):1–11, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jayaram J, Das A, Nicolae M (2010) Looking beyond the obvious: unraveling the Toyota production system. Int J Prod Econ 128(1):280–291, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Alonso A (1998) Concepts in industrial organization. Ed. Marcombo, SpainGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hay J (2002) Just in time: a Japanese technique for advanced competitiveness. Ed. Norma, Bogotá, ColombiaGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vokurka J, Davis RA (1996) Just-in-Time: the evolution of a philosophy. Prod Inventory Manag J : journal of the American Production and Inventory Control Society, Inc 37(2):56–59Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Profeta A (2003) A case study about critical success factor for JIT. Sao Paolo University, BrasilGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sugimori Y, Kusunoki K, Cho F, Uchikawa S (1977) Toyota production system and Kanban system: materialization of just-in-time and respect-for-human system. Int J Prod Res 15(6):553–564. doi: 10.1080/00207547708943149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Monden Y (1993) Toyota production system: an integrated approach to just-in-time. Industrial Engineering and Management Press, Institute of Industrial Engineers, Norcross, GaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hall RW (1983) Zero inventories. McGraw-Hill Education - Europe, New York, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Taylor D (1983) Stockless production: how to tame American industry just-in-time. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the APICS Zero Inventories Seminar, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stasey R, McNair CJ (1990) Crossroads: a JIT success story. Dow Jones-Irwin, Homewood, ILGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Toomey J (1996) MRP II: planning for manufacturing excellence. Chapman & Hall, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Robinson A (1990) Modern approaches to manufacturing improvement: the Shingo system. Productivity Press, Cambrige, MAGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Harmon RL, Peterson LD (1990) Reinventing the factory: productivity breakthroughs in manufacturing today. Free Press, Collier Macmillan, New York, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Golhar D, Stamm C (1991) The just-in-time philosophy: a literature review. Int J Prod Res 29(4):657–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Krajewski LJ, Ritzman LP (1992) Operations management: strategy and analysis, 3rd edn. Addison-Wesley, Boston, USAGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Giunipero LC, Law WK (1990) Organizational support for just‐in‐time implementation. Int J Logistics Manag 1(2):35–40. doi: 10.1108/09574099010804572 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gaither N (1994) Production and operations management, 6th edn. Dryden Press, Fort Worth, TX. USAGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Krajewski LJ, Ritzman LP (1999) Operations management: strategy and analysis. Publishing Company, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chengalvarayan G, Parker SC (1991) Simulation analysis of just-in-time feasibility in a manufacturing environment. Comput Ind Eng 21(1):303–306, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Manavizadeh N, Hosseini N-s, Rabbani M, Jolai F (2013) A simulated annealing algorithm for a mixed model assembly U-line balancing type-I problem considering human efficiency and Just-In-Time approach. Comput Ind Eng 64(2):669–685, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Azadeh A, Bidokhti B, Sakkaki SMR (2005) Design of practical optimum JIT systems by integration of computer simulation and analysis of variance. Comput Ind Eng 49(4):504–519, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yavuz M, Tufekci S (2006) Dynamic programming solution to the batching problem in just-in-time flow-shops. Comput Ind Eng 51(3):416–432, doi: MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ho JC, Chang YL (2001) An integrated MRP and JIT framework. Comput Ind Eng 41(2):173–185, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Abdul-Nour G, Lambert S, Drolet J (1998) Adaptation of jit phylosophy and kanban technique to a small-sized manufacturing firm; a project management approach. Comput Ind Eng 35(3–4):419–422, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fukukawa T, Hong S-C (1993) The determination of the optimal number of kanbans in a Just-In-Time production system. Comput Ind Eng 24(4):551–559, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Khan LR, Sarker RA (2002) An optimal batch size for a JIT manufacturing system. Comput Ind Eng 42(2–4):127–136, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bylka S (2011) Non-cooperative strategies for production and shipment lot sizing in one vendor–multi-buyer system. Int J Prod Econ 131(1):372–382, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Erbetta F, Rappuoli L (2008) Optimal scale in the Italian gas distribution industry using data envelopment analysis. Omega 36(2):325–336, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Alcaraz JLG, Maldonado AA, Iniesta AA, Robles GC, Hernández GA (2014) A systematic review/survey for JIT implementation: Mexican maquiladoras as case study. Comput Ind 65(4):761–773, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Panchal V, Amit P, Sachin G (2012) Study of JIT and JIT elements. Int J Ind Eng Technol (IJIET) 2(2):38–41Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Panchal V, Gupta A, Ram S, Rai N (2012) Identification of JIT elements in service sector. Int J Latest Res Sci Technol 1(3):211–214Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yasin MM, Small MH, Wafa MA (2003) Organizational modifications to support JIT implementation in manufacturing and service operations. Omega 31(3):213–226, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shnaiderman M, Ben-Baruch L (2016) Control and enforcement in order to increase supplier inventory in a JIT contract. Eur J Oper Res 250(1):143–154, doi: MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Amasaka K (2014) New JIT, new management technology principle: surpassing JIT. Procedia Technol 16:1135–1145, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Likert R (1932) A technique for the measumerement of attitudes. Arch Psychol 22(140):1–55Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Inman RA, Sale SS, Green KW, Whitten D (2011) Agile manufacturing: relation to JIT, operational performance and firm performance. J Oper Manag 29(4):343–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lévy M, Varela MJ (2003) Multivariate analysis for social sciences. Pearson Education, S. A., Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nordgaard A, Ansell R, Jaeger L, Drotz W (2010) Ordinal scales of conclusions for the value of evidence. Sci Justice 50(1):31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jun M, Cai S, Shin H (2006) TQM practice in maquiladora: antecedents of employee satisfaction and loyalty. J Oper Manag 24(6):791–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hair JF, Hult GTM, Ringle CM, Sarstedt MA (2013) Primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage, Thousand Oaks, CAzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Han SB (2000) The effects of ISO 9000 registration efforts on total quality management practices and business performance. University of Rhode Island, USAGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kaiser HM (2011) Mathematical programming for agricultural, environmental, and resource economics. Wiley, Hoboken, NJGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2001) Using multivariate statistics, 4th edn. Allyn & Bacon, Boston, ILGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cronbach LJ (1951) Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 16(3):297–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Henseler J, Ringle CM, Sinkovics RR (2009) The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Adv Int Mark 20:277–320Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Götz O, Liehr-Gobbers K, Krafft M (2009) Evaluation of structural equation models using the partial least squares (PLS) approach, In: Esposito Vinzi. In: Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications vol 2. 5 edn. (Springer Handbooks of Computational Statistics Series), Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rigdon EE (2011) Rethinking partial least squares path modeling: in praise of simple methods. Long Range Plann 45(5-6):341–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hair JF, Anderson RE, Tatham RL (1987) Multivariate data analysis. NY: Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hair JFB, W C. Babin, B J., Anderson RE (2009) Multivariate data analysis. NJ: Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Giaquinta M (2009) Mathematical analysis: An introduction to functions of several variables. NY: Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rosenthal R, Rosnow RL (1991) Essentials of behavioral research: methods and data analysis. McGraw Hill, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wold S, Trygg J, Berglund A, Antti H (2001) Some recent developments in PLS modeling. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 58(2):131–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fullerton RR, Kennedy FA, Widener SK (2013) Management accounting and control practices in a lean manufacturing environment. Acc Organ Soc 38(1):50–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Patel P, Terjesen S, Li D (2012) Enhancing effects of manufacturing flexibility through operational absorptive capacity and operational ambidexterity. J Oper Manag 30(3):201–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Banerjee A, Kim S-L, Burton J (2007) Supply chain coordination through effective multi-stage inventory linkages in a JIT environment. Int J Prod Econ 108(1–2):271–280, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Min W, Sui Pheng L (2006) EOQ, JIT and fixed costs in the ready-mixed concrete industry. Int J Prod Econ 102(1):167–180, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Inman RA, Sale RS, Green KW Jr, Whitten D (2011) Agile manufacturing: Relation to JIT, operational performance and firm performance. J Oper Manag 29(4):343–355, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hou T-H, Hu W-C (2011) An integrated MOGA approach to determine the Pareto-optimal kanban number and size for a JIT system. Expert Syst Appl 38(5):5912–5918, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Power D, Sohal AS (2000) Human resource management strategies and practices in Just-In-Time environments: Australian case study evidence. Technovation 20(7):373–387, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Moattar Husseini SM, O’Brien C, Hosseini ST (2006) A method to enhance volume flexibility in JIT production control. Int J Prod Econ 104(2):653–665, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Balakrishnan R, Linsmeier T, Venkatakchalam M (1996) Financial benefits from JIT adoption: effects of customer concentration and cost structure. Account Rev 71(2):183–205Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fullerton RR, McWatters CS, Fawson C (2003) An examination of the relationships between JIT and financial performance. J Oper Manag 21(4):383–404, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hadjimarcou J, Brouthers LE, McNicol JP, Michie DE (2013) Maquiladoras in the 21st century: six strategies for success. Bus Horiz 56(2):207–217, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sargent J, Matthews L (2009) China versus Mexico in the Global EPZ Industry: maquiladoras, FDI quality, and plant mortality. World Dev 37(6):1069–1082, doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Prodipto RK (1999) Data Warehousing for Textiles, Texinfotech-99. Ministry of Textiles, Govt of India Techno park (I) Ldt.:7-15Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Priestman S (1985) SQC and JIT: partnership in quality: does culture make a difference? Qual Prog 18(6):31–34Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hong JD, Hayya JC, Kim SL (1992) JIT purchasing and setup reduction in an integrated inventory model. Int J Prod Res 30(2):255–266. doi: 10.1080/00207549208942893 zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Daesung H, Seung-Lae K (1997) Implementation of JIT purchasing: an integrated approach. Prod Plann Contr 8(2):152–157. doi: 10.1080/095372897235415 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kumar V, Garg D (2000) JIT elements in Indian context: an analysis. Productivity J 41(2):217–222Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Vrat P, Mittal S, Tyagi K (1993) Implementation of JIT in Indian environment: a Delhi study. Productivity J 34:251–256Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Padukone H, Subba RH (1993) Global status of JIT—implication for developing countries. Productivity J 34(3):419–429Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Garg D, Deshmukh SG, Kaul ON (1996) Critical analysis in JIT purchasing in Indian context. Productivity J 37:271–279Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Prem V, Mittal S, Tyagi K (1993) Implementation of JIT in Indian environment: a Delphi study. Productivity J 34(2):251–256Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Baker RC, Chang RE, Chang IC (1994) Switching rules for JIT purchasing. Prod Invent Manag J 35(3):13–17Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ebrahimpour M, Schonberger RJ (1984) The Japanese Just-in-Time/Total Quality control production system: potential for developing countries. Int J Prod Res 22(3):421–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Garg S, Vart P, Kanda A (1994) Work culture in JIT environment. Productivity J 35(3):463–466Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Flynn B, Salakibara S, Schroeder RG (1995) Relationship between JIT and TQM practices and performance. Acad Manag J 38(5):1325–1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Fiedler K, Galletly JE, Bicheno J (1993) Expert advice for JIT implementation. Int J Oper Prod Manag 13(6):23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ajit S (1989) Just-in-Time system: an integrated system. Productivity J 30(3):309–314Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Balakrishnan R, Linsmeier TJ, Venkatakchalam M (1996) Financial benefits from JIT adoption: effects of customer concentration and cost structure. Account Rev 71:183–205Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Guinipero LC WKL (1990) Organizational changes and JIT implementation. Prod Invent Manag J 3:71–73Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Muralidharan C, Anantharaman N, Deshmukh S (2001) Vendor rating in purchasing scenario: a confidence interval approach. international. J Oper Prod Manag 21(9):1305–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Voss CA (1990) Just-in-time manufacture. IFS, Publication Limited. Springer-Verlag, UKGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Dutton B (1990) Switching to quality excellence. Manuf Syst 8:245–256Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kumar V, Garg D, Mehta N (2001) JIT based quality management in Indian industries: prospectus and future directions. Paper presented at the National Conference Supply Chain Managemen, Institute of Public EnterpriseGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bartezzagi E (1999) The evolution of production models: is a new paradigm emerging? Int J Oper Prod Manag 19(2):229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Martel MC (1993) The role of just-in-time purchasing in Dynapert’s transition to world class manufacturing. Prod Invent Manag J 34:71–76Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Garg D (1999) JIT purchasing: literature review and implications for Indian industry. Prod Plan Control 10(3):276–285. doi: 10.1080/095372899233235 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Miltenbirg GJ (1990) Changing MRP’s costing procedure to suit JIT. Prod Invent Manag J 31(2):77–83Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Singh P, Bhandarkar A (1996) Paradigm shift in Indian industries: the need for tolerance of ambiguity. MDI Manag J 9:106–112Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Singhvi S (1992) Employee involvement in JIT success: Eicher experience. Productivity J 33:366–369Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bonito JG (1990) Motivating employees for continuous improvement efforts. Prod Inventory Manag Review with APICS new 8:225–236Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chong VK, Rundus MJ (2000) The effect of new manufacturing practices and intensity of market competition on organizational performance: an empirical investigation. Paper presented at the International Conference on Management Research Accounting Research and Case Symposium, Mesa, Arizona, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Garg D (1997) Relevance of JIT purchasing in Indian industries. Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Delbridge R (1995) Surviving JIT: control and resistance in a Japanese transplan. J Manag Stud 32:803–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Vuppalipati K, Ahire SL, Gupta T (1995) JIT and TQM: a case for joint implementation. Int J Oper Prod Manag 15(5):84–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Macbeth DK, Baxter LF, Farguson N, Neil GC (1988) Buyer-vendor relationship with just-in-time: lessons from US multinationals. Ind Eng 20(9):28–41Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Carter JR, Narsimhan R (1996) Is price really strategic? Int J Purch Mater Manag 32(1):20–28Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Parnaby J (1988) A system approach to the implementation of JIT methodologies in Lucas Industries. Int J Prod Res 26(2):483–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sakuri K (1986) Japanese worker attitudes: a key factor to productivity. Int J Oper Prod Manag 6(1):42–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lee S, Ebrahimpour M (1985) Just-in-time production system: some requirements for implementation. Int J Oper Prod Manag 4(4):3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Roy RN, Guin KK (1996) JIT: World scenario and possibility of its applicability in Indian industries. Paper presented at the National conference on operation research in modern technology, REC KurukshetraGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge L. García Alcaraz
    • 1
  • Aidé A. Maldonado Macías
    • 1
  • Diana Jazmín Prieto Luevano
    • 1
  • Julio Blanco Fernández
    • 2
  • Alfonso de Jesús Gil López
    • 3
  • Emilio Jiménez Macías
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Industrial Engineering and ManufacturingInstitute of Engineering and Technology, Autonomous University of Ciudad JuárezChihuahuaMéxico
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of la RiojaLogroñoSpain
  3. 3.Department of Teaching, Educational Organization and Special EducationNational Distance Education University (UNED)MadridSpain

Personalised recommendations