Dissimilar metal joining of stainless steel and titanium using copper as transition metal

Abstract

Joining of stainless steel and titanium dissimilar metal combination has a specific interest in the nuclear industry. Due to the metallurgical incompatibility, it has been very difficult to produce reliable joints between these metals due to the formation of FeTi and Fe2Ti types of intermetallic compounds. The metallurgical incompatibility between both materials is enhanced by the time–temperature profile of the welding process used. Brittle intermetallics (IMCs) are formed during Fe–Ti welding (FeTi and Fe2Ti). The present study uses the low thermal heat input process cold metal transfer (CMT), when compared with conventional GMAW, to deposit a copper (Cu) bead between Ti and stainless steel. Cu is compatible with Fe, and it has a lower melting point than the two base materials. The welds were produced between AMS 4911L (Ti-6Al-4V) and AISI 316L stainless steel using a CuSi-3 welding wire. The joints produced revealed two IM layers located near the parent metals/weld interfaces. The hardness of these layers is higher than the remainder of the weld bead. Tensile tests were carried out with a maximum strength of 200 MPa, but the interfacial failure could not be avoided. Ti atomic migration was observed during experimental trials; however, the IMC formed are less brittle than FeTi, inducing higher mechanical properties.

References

  1. 1.

    ASM International (1992) ASM handbook: alloy phase diagrams v. 3. ASM International

  2. 2.

    Poddar D (2009) Solid-state diffusion bonding of commercially pure titanium and precipitation hardening stainless steel. Int J Recent Trends Eng 1:93–99

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Kundu S, Chatterjee S (2008) Diffusion bonding between commercially pure titanium and micro-duplex stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng A 480:316–322. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2007.07.033

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Fazel-Najafabadi M, Kashani-Bozorg SF, Zarei-Hanzaki a (2011) Dissimilar lap joining of 304 stainless steel to CP-Ti employing friction stir welding. Mater Des 32:1824–1832. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2010.12.026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Kahraman N, Gulenc B, Findik F (2005) Joining of titanium/stainless steel by explosive welding and effect on interface. J Mater Process Technol 169:127–133. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2005.06.045

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Shanmugarajan B, Padmanabham G (2012) Fusion welding studies using laser on Ti–SS dissimilar combination. Opt Lasers Eng 50:1621–1627. doi:10.1016/j.optlaseng.2012.05.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Lee JG, Hong SJ, Lee MK, Rhee CK (2009) High strength bonding of titanium to stainless steel using an Ag interlayer. J Nucl Mater 395:145–149. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2009.10.045

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Shiue RK, Wu SK, Chan CH, Huang CS (2006) Infrared brazing of Ti-6Al-4V and 17-4 PH stainless steel with a nickel barrier layer. Metall Mater Trans A 37:2207–2217. doi:10.1007/BF02586140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Wang T, Zhang B, Chen G et al (2010) Electron beam welding of Ti-15-3 titanium alloy to 304 stainless steel with copper interlayer sheet. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 20:1829–1834. doi:10.1016/S1003-6326(09)60381-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Tomashchuk I, Sallamand P, Andrzejewski H, Grevey D (2011) The formation of intermetallics in dissimilar Ti6Al4V/copper/AISI 316 L electron beam and Nd:YAG laser joints. Intermetallics 19:1466–1473. doi:10.1016/j.intermet.2011.05.016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kundu S, Ghosh M, Laik a et al (2005) Diffusion bonding of commercially pure titanium to 304 stainless steel using copper interlayer. Mater Sci Eng A 407:154–160. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2005.07.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    BS EN ISO 6507–1 (2005) Metallic materials—Vickers hardness test—part 1: test method. Br Stand 20

  13. 13.

    Pépe N, Egerland S, Colegrove P a et al (2011) Measuring the process efficiency of controlled gas metal arc welding processes. Sci Technol Weld Join 16:412–417. doi:10.1179/1362171810Y.0000000029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Raghavan V (2002) Cu-Fe-Ti (copper-iron-titanium). J Phase Equilibria 23:172–174. doi:10.1361/1054971023604152

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gonçalo Pardal.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pardal, G., Ganguly, S., Williams, S. et al. Dissimilar metal joining of stainless steel and titanium using copper as transition metal. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86, 1139–1150 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-8110-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Titanium
  • Stainless steel
  • Intermetallic
  • Dissimilar welding