Tool wear mechanisms involved in crater formation on uncoated carbide tool when machining Ti6Al4V alloy

  • R. A. Rahman Rashid
  • S. Palanisamy
  • S. Sun
  • M. S. Dargusch
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

When machining titanium alloys at cutting speeds higher than 60 m/min using cemented carbide cutting tools, the tool wears out rapidly. With the ever-increasing use of titanium alloys, it is essential to address this issue of rapid tool wear in order to reduce manufacturing costs. Therefore, the intention of this study was to investigate all possible tool wear mechanisms involved when using uncoated carbide cutting tools to machine Ti6Al4V titanium alloy at a cutting speed of 150 m/min under dry cutting conditions. Adhesion, diffusion, attrition, and abrasion were found to be the mechanisms associated with the cratering of the rake surface of the cutting tool. The plastic deformation of the cutting edge was also noticed which resulted in weakening of the rake surface and clear evidence has been presented. Based on this evidence, the process of the formation of the crater wear has been described in detail.

Keywords

Tool wear Ti6Al4V Crater wear Adhesion Attrition Diffusion Abrasion 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ulutan D, Ozel T (2011) Machining induced surface integrity in titanium and nickel alloys: a review. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 51(3):250–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bermingham MJ, Kirsch J, Sun S, Palanisamy S, Dargusch MS (2011) New observations on tool life, cutting forces and chip morphology in cryogenic machining Ti-6Al-4V. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 51(6):500–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ezugwu EO, Wang ZM (1997) Titanium alloys and their machinability—a review. J Mater Process Technol 68(3):262–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Venkatesan K, Ramanujam R, Kuppan P (2014) Laser assisted machining of difficult to cut materials: research opportunities and future directions—a comprehensive review. Procedia Eng 97:1626–1636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Palanisamy S, Dargusch MS, McDonald SD, Brandt M, StJohn DH (2007) A rationale for the acoustic monitoring of surface deformation in Ti6Al4V alloys during machining. Adv Eng Mater 9(11):1000–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Palanisamy S, McDonald SD, Dargusch MS (2009) Effects of coolant pressure on chip formation while turning Ti6Al4V alloy. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49(9):739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Niu W, Bermingham MJ, Baburamani PS, Palanisamy S, Dargusch MS, Turk S, Grigson B, Sharp PK (2013) The effect of cutting speed and heat treatment on the fatigue life of Grade 5 and Grade 23 Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Mater Des 46:640–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Budak E, Tunc LT (2010) Identification and modeling of process damping in turning and milling using a new approach. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 59(1):403–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rahman Rashid RA, Sun S, Wang G, Dargusch MS (2012) An investigation of cutting forces and cutting temperatures during laser-assisted machining of the Ti-6Cr-5Mo-5V-4Al beta titanium alloy. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 63:58–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dargusch MS, Zhang MX, Palanisamy S, Buddery AJM, StJohn DH (2008) Subsurface deformation after dry machining of grade 2 titanium. Adv Eng Mater 10(1-2):85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Trent EM, Wright PK (2000) Metal cutting, 4th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dearnley PA, Grearson AN (1986) Evaluation of principal wear mechanisms of cemented carbides and ceramics used for machining titanium alloy IMI 318. Mater Sci Technol 2(1):47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Armendia M, Garay A, Iriarte LM, Arrazola PJ (2010) Comparison of the machinabilities of Ti6Al4V and TIMETAL® 54M using uncoated WC-Co tools. J Mater Process Technol 210(2):197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dan L, Mathew J (1990) Tool wear and failure monitoring techniques for turning—a review. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 30(4):579–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hartung PD, Kramer BM, von Turkovich BF (1982) Tool wear in titanium machining. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 31(1):75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rahman Rashid RA, Bermingham MJ, Sun S, Wang G, Dargusch MS (2013) The response of the high strength Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al beta titanium alloy to laser assisted cutting. Precis Eng 37(2):461–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jianxin D, Yousheng L, Wenlong S (2008) Diffusion wear in dry cutting of Ti-6Al-4V with WC/Co carbide tools. Wear 265(11-12):1776–1783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang S, Li JF, Deng JX, Li YS (2009) Investigation on diffusion wear during high-speed machining Ti-6Al-4V alloy with straight tungsten carbide tools. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 44(1-2):17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nabhani F (2001) Machining of aerospace titanium alloys. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 17(1–2):99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Komanduri R, Hou ZB (2001) Thermal modeling of the metal cutting process—Part II: temperature rise distribution due to frictional heat source at the tool–chip interface. Int J Mech Sci 43(1):57–88CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Komanduri R, Hou ZB (2001) Thermal modeling of the metal cutting process—Part III: temperature rise distribution due to the combined effects of shear plane heat source and the tool–chip interface frictional heat source. Int J Mech Sci 43(1):89–107CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hua J, Shivpuri R (2005) A cobalt diffusion based model for predicting crater wear of carbide tools in machining titanium alloys. J Eng Mater Technol Trans ASME 127(1):136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang M, Zhang Y (1988) Diffusion wear in milling titanium alloys. Mater Sci Technol 4(6):548–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nerz J, Kushner B, Rotolico A (1992) Microstructural evaluation of tungsten carbide-cobalt coatings. JTST 1(2):147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Odelros S (2012) Tool wear in titanium machining. Uppsala UniversityGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and TechnologySwinburne University of TechnologyVictoriaAustralia
  2. 2.School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing EngineeringRMIT UniversityVictoriaAustralia
  3. 3.Queensland Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacturing (AMPAM), School of Mechanical and Mining EngineeringThe University of QueenslandQueenslandAustralia
  4. 4.Defence Materials Technology CentreVictoriaAustralia

Personalised recommendations