Advertisement

Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: technologies, developments and future interests

  • Donghong DingEmail author
  • Zengxi Pan
  • Dominic Cuiuri
  • Huijun Li
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

Wire-feed additive manufacturing (AM) is a promising alternative to traditional subtractive manufacturing for fabricating large expensive metal components with complex geometry. The current research focus on wire-feed AM is trying to produce complex-shaped functional metal components with good geometry accuracy, surface finish and material property to meet the demanding requirements from aerospace, automotive and rapid tooling industry. Wire-feed AM processes generally involve high residual stresses and distortions due to the excessive heat input and high deposition rate. The influences of process conditions, such as energy input, wire-feed rate, welding speed, deposition pattern and deposition sequences, etc., on thermal history and resultant residual stresses of AM-processed components needs to be further understood. In addition, poor accuracy and surface finish of the process limit the applications of wire-feed AM technology. In this paper, after an introduction of various wire-feed AM technologies and its characteristics, an in depth review of various process aspects of wire-feed AM, including quality and accuracy of wire-feed AM processed components, will be presented. The overall objective is to identify the current challenges for wire-feed AM as well as point out the future research direction.

Keywords

Additive manufacturing Wire Metal component Review 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Wohlers T, Gornet T (2014) History of additive manufacturing. Wohlers Report. http://wohlersassociates.com/history2014.pdf
  2. 2.
    Jacobs PF (1992) Rapid prototyping & manufacturing fundamentals of stereolithography. Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn. First edition. USGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sachs E et al (1990) Three-dimensional printing: rapid tooling and prototypes directly from a CAD model. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 39:201–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ding J et al (2011) Thermo-mechanical analysis of wire and arc additive layer manufacturing process on large multi-layer parts. Comput Mater Sci 50:3315–3322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zalameda JN, et al. (2013) Thermal imaging for assessment of electron-beam free form fabrication (EBF3) additive manufacturing deposits. SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing, International Society for Optics and PhotonicsGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mueller DH, et al (2000) Experiences using rapid prototyping techniques to manufacture sheet metal forming tools. Dublin, IrelandGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levy GN et al (2003) Rapid manufacturing and rapid tooling with layer manufacturing (LM) technologies, state of the art and future perspectives. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 52:589–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    King D, Tansey T (2003) Rapid tooling: selective laser sintering injection tooling. J Mater Process Technol 132:42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Simchi A et al (2003) On the development of direct laser sintering for rapid tooling. J Mater Process Technol 141:319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heinl P et al (2008) Cellular Ti-6Al-4V structures with interconnected macro porosity for bone implants fabricated by selective electron beam melting. Acta Biomater 4:1536–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Agarwala M et al (1995) Direct selective laser sintering of metals. Rapid Prototyp J 1:26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kruth JP et al (2004) Selective laser melting of iron-based powder. J Mater Process Technol 149:616–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Taminger KMB et al (2003) Electron beam freeform fabrication: a rapid metal deposition process. In: Proceedings of third annual automotive composites conference, Society of Plastic Engineers, Troy, MI; 9–10Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Atwood C, et al (1998) Laser engineered net shaping (LENS™): A tool for direct fabrication of metal parts. 17th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Elector-Optics, Orlando, FL; 16–19Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Furumoto T et al (2009) Study on laser consolidation of metal powder with Yb:fiber laser—evaluation of line consolidation structure. J Mater Process Technol 2009:5973–5980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Milewski JO et al (1998) Directed light fabrication of a solid metal hemisphere using 5-axis powder deposition. J Mater Process Technol 75:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang F et al (2013) Microstructure and mechanical properties of wire and arc additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V. Metall Mater Trans A 44:968–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Utela B et al (2008) A review of process development steps for new material systems in three dimensional printing (3DP). J Manuf Process 10:96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mueller B, Kochan D (1999) Laminated object manufacturing for rapid tooling and patternmaking in foundry industry. Comput Ind 39:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kong CY, Soar RC (2005) Fabrication of metal-matrix composites and adaptive composites using ultrasonic consolidation process. Mater Sci Eng A 412:12–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gu D et al (2012) Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: materials, processes, and mechanisms. Int Mater Rev 57:133–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xue L, et al (2006) Laser consolidation-a novel one-step manufacturing process for making net-shape functional components. In Cost Effective Manufacturing via Net-Shape Processing. Neuily-sur-Seine, France, 15:1–4Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mumtaz K, Hopkinson N (2009) Top surface and side roughness of Inconel 625 parts processed using selective laser melting. Rapid Prototyp J 15:96–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mumtaz K, Hopkinson N (2010) Selective laser melting of thin wall parts using pulse shaping. J Mater Process Technol 210:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhu H et al (2003) Development and characterisation of direct laser sintering Cu-based metal powder. J Mater Process Technol 140:314–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Colegrove PA (2010) High deposition rate high quality metal additive manufacture using wire + are technology. http://www.norsktitanium.no/en/News/∼/media/NorskTitanium/Titanidum%20day%20presentations/Paul%20Colegrove%20Cranfield%20Additive%20manufacturing.ashx
  27. 27.
    Taminger KMB et al (2006) Electron beam freeform fabrication for cost effective near-net shape manufacturing. NATO AVT 139:16–1Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhang Y et al (2008) Characterization of laser powder deposited Ti–TiC composites and functional gradient materials. J Mater Process Technol 206:434–444Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Karunakaran K et al (2010) Low cost integration of additive and subtractive processes for hybrid layered manufacturing. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 26:490–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Heinl P et al (2007) Cellular titanium by selective electron beam melting. Adv Eng Mater 9:360–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Syed WUH et al (2005) A comparative study of wire feeding and powder feeding in direct diode laser deposition for rapid prototyping. Appl Surf Sci 247:268–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Syed WUH et al (2006) Combining wire and coaxial powder feeding in laser direct metal deposition for rapid prototyping. Appl Surf Sci 252:4803–4808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang F et al (2007) Laser fabrication of Ti6Al4V/TiC composites using simultaneous powder and wire feed. Mater Sci Eng A 445:461–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Melchels FP et al (2012) Additive manufacturing of tissues and organs. Prog Polym Sci 37:1079–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Karunakaran K et al (2012) Rapid manufacturing of metallic objects. Rapid Prototyp J 18:264–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Guo N, Ceu MC (2013) Additive manufacturing: technology, applications and research needs. Front Mech Eng 8:215–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lipson H (2012) Frontiers in additive manufacturing. Bridge 42:5–12Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lyons B (2012) Additive manufacturing in aerospace. Bridge 42:13–19Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kruth JP et al (1998) Progress in additive manufacturing and rapid prototyping. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 47:525–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Unocic R et al (2004) Process efficiency measurements in the laser engineered net shaping process. Metall Mater Trans B 35:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rännar LE et al (2007) Efficient cooling with tool inserts manufactured by electron beam melting. Rapid Prototyp J 13:128–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    DuPont J et al (1995) Thermal efficiency of arc welding processes. Weld J Incl Weld Res Suppl 74:406sGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stenbacka N, et al (2012) Review of Arc Efficiency Values for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. IIW Commission IV-XII-SG212, Intermediate Meeting, BAM, Berlin, Germany, 18–20 AprilGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Heralic A (2012) Monitoring and control of robotized laser metal-wire deposition. Doctoral thesis, Chalmers University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Moures F et al (2005) Optimisation of refractory coatings realised with cored wire addition using a high-power diode laser. Surf Coat Technol 200:2283–2292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mok SH et al (2008) Deposition of Ti–6Al–4V using a high power diode laser and wire, Part II: investigation on the mechanical properties. Surf Coat Technol 202:4613–4619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Baufeld B et al (2011) Wire based additive layer manufacturing: comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V components fabricated by laser-beam deposition and shaped metal deposition. J Mater Process Technol 211:1146–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Xiao R et al (2002) Influence of wire addition direction in C02 laser welding of aluminum. Proc SPIE 4915:128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kim JD et al (2000) Plunging method for Nd: YAG laser cladding with wire feeding. Opt Lasers Eng 33:299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Syed WUH et al (2005) Effects of wire feeding direction and location in multiple layer diode laser direct metal deposition. Appl Surf Sci 248:518–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mok SH et al (2008) Deposition of Ti–6Al–4V using a high power diode laser and wire, Part I: investigation on the process characteristics. Surf Coat Technol 202:3933–3939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brandl E et al (2011) Deposition of Ti–6Al–4V using laser and wire, part II: hardness and dimensions of single beads. Surf Coat Technol 206:1130–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brandl E et al (2012) Morphology, microstructure, and hardness of titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) blocks deposited by wire-feed additive layer manufacturing (ALM). Mater Sci Eng A 532:295–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wanjara P et al (2007) Electron beam freeforming of stainless steel using solid wire feed. Mater Des 28:2278–2286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dickens P, et al (1992) Rapid prototyping using 3-D welding. In Proc. Solid Freeform Fabrication Symp: 280–290Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Spencer J et al (1998) Rapid prototyping of metal parts by three-dimensional welding. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 212:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kovacevic R, Beardsley H (1998) Process Control of 3D Welding as a Droplet-Based Rapid Prototyping Technique. In Proc. Solid Freeform Fabrication Symp: 57–64Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dwivedi R, Kovacevic R (2004) Automated torch path planning using polygon subdivision for solid freeform fabrication based on welding. J Manuf Syst 23:278–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Jandric Z et al (2004) Effect of heat sink on microstructure of three-dimensional parts built by welding-based deposition. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 44:785–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Song YA et al (2005) 3D welding and milling: part I—a direct approach for freeform fabrication of metallic prototypes. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45:1057–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Song YA et al (2005) 3D welding and milling: part II—optimization of the 3D welding process using an experimental design approach. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45:1063–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zhang YM et al (2003) Weld deposition-based rapid prototyping: a preliminary study. J Mater Process Technol 135:347–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zhang YM et al (2002) Automated system for welding-based rapid prototyping. Mechatronics 12:37–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kwak YM et al (2002) Geometry regulation of material deposition in near-net shape manufacturing by thermally scanned welding. J Manuf Process 4:28–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Merz R, et al (1994) Shape deposition manufacturing. Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Solid Freeform Fabrication, Austin, Texas, pp. 8–10Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Xiong J et al (2013) Modeling of bead section profile and overlapping beads with experimental validation for robotic GMAW-based rapid manufacturing. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 29:417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Xiong J et al (2013) Vision-sensing and bead width control of a single-bead multi-layer part: material and energy savings in GMAW-based rapid manufacturing. J Clean Prod 41:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Aiyiti W et al (2006) Investigation of the overlapping parameters of MPAW-based rapid prototyping. Rapid Prototyp J 12:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Suryakumar S et al (2011) Weld bead modeling and process optimization in hybrid layered manufacturing. Comput Aided Des 43:331–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Martina F et al (2012) Investigation of the benefits of plasma deposition for the additive layer manufacture of Ti–6Al–4V. J Mater Process Technol 212:1377–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ribeiro AF, et al (1996) Rapid prototyping process using metal directly. In Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, pp. 249–256Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Colegrove PA et al (2013) Microstructure and residual stress improvement in wire and arc additively manufactured parts through high-pressure rolling. J Mater Process Technol 213:1782–1791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ding D et al (2014) A tool-path generation strategy for wire and arc additive manufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 73:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ding D et al (2015) A multi-bead overlapping model for robotic wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM). Robot Comput Integr Manuf 31:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ding D et al (2015) A practical path planning methodology for wire and arc additive manufacturing of thin-walled structures. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 34:8–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ma Y et al (2014) Characterization of in-situ alloyed and additively manufactured titanium aluminides. Metall Mater Trans B 45:2299–2303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ma Y et al (2015) The effect of location on the microstructure and mechanical properties of titanium aluminides produced by additive layer manufacturing using in-situ alloying and gas tungsten arc welding. Mater Sci Eng A 631:230–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ma Y et al (2014) Effects of wire feed conditions on in situ alloying and additive layer manufacturing of titanium aluminides using gas tungsten arc welding. J Mater Res 29:2066–2071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Almeida PS, et al (2010) Innovative process model of Ti–6Al–4 V additive layer manufacturing using cold metal transfer (CMT). Proceedings of 21th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USAGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mannion B, Heinzman J (1999) Plasma arc welding brings better control. Tooling Prod 5:29–30Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fessler J, et al (1996) Laser deposition of metals for shape deposition manufacturing. In Proceedings of the Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium: 117–124Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nickel AH (1999) Analysis of thermal stresses in shape deposition manufacturing of metal parts. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nickel AH et al (2001) Thermal stresses and deposition patterns in layered manufacturing. Mater Sci Eng A 317:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Foroozmehr E, Kovacevic R (2010) Effect of path planning on the laser powder deposition process: thermal and structural evaluation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 51:659–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mughal M et al (2005) Deformation modelling in layered manufacturing of metallic parts using gas metal arc welding: effect of process parameters. Model Simul Mater Sci Eng 13:1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mughal M et al (2006) Finite element prediction of thermal stresses and deformations in layered manufacturing of metallic parts. Acta Mech 183:61–79CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ding J et al (2014) A computationally efficient finite element model of wire and arc additive manufacture. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 70:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sun S et al (2007) Adaptive direct slicing of a commercial CAD model for use in rapid prototyping. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 34:689–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Singh P, Dutta D (2003) Multi-Direction Layered Deposition–An Overview of Process Planning Methodologies. In Proceedings of the Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium :279–288Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Xiong J et al (2012) Bead geometry prediction for robotic GMAW-based rapid manufacturing through a neural network and a second-order regression analysis. J Intell Manuf 25:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Cao Y et al (2011) Overlapping model of beads and curve fitting of bead section for rapid manufacturing by robotic MAG welding process. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 27:641–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Doumanidis C, Kwak YM (2002) Multivariable adaptive control of the bead profile geometry in gas metal arc welding with thermal scanning. Int J Press Vessel Pip 79:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donghong Ding
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zengxi Pan
    • 1
  • Dominic Cuiuri
    • 1
  • Huijun Li
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information SciencesUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations