Advertisement

Rapid replication of metal microstructures using micro-powder hot embossing process

  • J. Zhang
  • M. Sahli
  • J.-C. Gelin
  • T. Barriere
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

Micro-metal injection moulding process technology is one of the key technologies to satisfy the increasing demands for smaller parts associated to miniaturisation and fictionalisation in different application fields. The process combines the shape-making capability of polymer by hot embossing with sintering technology to produce complex, high density metal parts with outstanding properties. The present work focussed on elaboration and characterisation of feedstock based on 316L stainless steel powders for micro-powder embossing process. In this paper, the rheological specifications of the binder and the feedstock were observed by means of capillary rheometry. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out on feedstock in order to understand decomposition behaviour of the binder components. The effects of sintering temperature on the dimensional stability, and particularly hardness of sintered components, were investigated. The results show that the feedstock can be used for the manufacturing of the micro-fluidic die mould cavities with a low roughness, proper dimensions and good shape retention.

Keywords

Hot embossing Rheological characteristics Homogeneity Binder system 316L stainless steel 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Jena RK, Yue CY, Lam YC, Tang PS, Gupta A (2012) Comparison of different molds (epoxy, polymer and silicon) for microfabrication by hot embossing technique. Sensors Actuators B Chem 163:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heckele M, Schomburg WK (2004) Review on micro molding of thermoplastic polymers. J Micromech Microeng 14:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Glinsner T, Veres T, Kreindl G, Roy E, Morton K, Wieser T et al (2010) Fully automated hot embossing processes utilizing high resolution working stamps. Microelectron Eng 87:1037–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heckele M, Bacher W, Müller KD (1998) Hot embossing—the moulding technique for plastic microstructures. Microsyst Technol 4:122–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mathur A, Roy SS, Tweedie M, Mukhopadhyay S, Mitra SK, McLaughlin JA (2009) Characterisation of PMMA microfluidic channels and devices fabricated by hot embossing and sealed by direct bonding. Curr Appl Phys 9:1199–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Greener J, Li W, Ren J, Voicu D, Pakharenko V, Tang T et al (2010) Rapid, cost-efficient fabrication of microfluidic reactors in thermoplastic polymers by combining photolithography and hot embossing. Lab Chip 10:522–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huang M-S, Chiang Y-C, Lin S-C, Cheng H-C, Huang C-F, Shen Y-K et al (2012) Fabrication of microfluidic chip using micro-hot embossing with micro electrical discharge machining mold. Polym Adv Technol 23:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kolew A, Muench D, Sikora K, Worgull M (2011) Hot embossing of micro and sub-micro structured inserts for polymer replication. Microsyst Technol Micro Nanosyst Informat Storage Process Syst 17:609–618Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shan XC, Ikehara T, Murakoshi Y, Maeda R (2005) Applications of micro hot embossing for optical switch formation. Sens Actuator A Phys 119:433–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sahli M, Millot C, Roques-Carmes C, Khan Malek C, Gelin JC, Barrière T (2009) Quality assessment of polymer replication by hot embossing and micro-injection molding processes using scanning mechanical, microscopy. J Mater Process Technol 209:5851–5861Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jaszewski RW, Schift H, Gobrecht J, Smith P (1998) Hot embossing in polymers as a direct way to pattern resist. Microelectron Eng 41:575–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sai WB, Salah NB, Lebrun JL (2001) Influence of machining by finishing milling on surface characteristics. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 41:443–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee KY, Kang MC, Jeong YH, Lee DW, Kim JS (2001) Simulation of surface roughness and profile in high-speed end milling. J Mater Process Technol 113:410–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tsai YH, Chen JC, Lou SJ (1999) In-process surface recognition system based on neural networks in end milling cutting operations. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 39:583–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lin CR, Chen RH, Hung C (2003) Preventing non-uniform shrinkage in open die hot embossing of PMMA micro-structures. J Mater Process Technol 140:173–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carvalho BL, Schilling EA, Schmid N, Kellog GJ (2003) Soft embossing of microfluidic devices, Proceedings of the 7th international conference on miniaturized chemical and biochemical analysis systems, Squaw Valley, CA, USA, pp 959–962Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lan S, Lee H-J, Kim E, Ni J, Lee S-H, Lai X, Song J-H, Lee NK, Lee MG (2009) A parameter study on the micro hot-embossing process of glassy polymer for pattern replication. Microelectron Eng 86:2369–2374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li JM, Liu C, Peng J (2008) Effect of hot embossing process parameters on polymer flow and microchannel accuracy produced without vacuum. J Mater Process Technol 207:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jena RK, Yue CY, Lam YC, Wang ZY (2010) High fidelity hot-embossing of COC microdevices using a one-step process without pre-annealing of polymer substrate. Sensors Actuators B Chem 150:692–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fu G, Tor SB, Loh NH, Hardt DE (2009) Micro-hot-embossing of 316L stainless steel micro-structures. Appl Phys 97:925–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meng J, Loh NH, Fu G, Tor SB, Tay BY (2010) Replication and characterization of 316L stainless steel micro-mixer by micro powder injection moulding. J Alloys Compd 496:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tay BY, Liu L, Loh NH, Tor SB, Murakoshi Y, Maeda R (2006) Characterization of metallic micro rod arrays fabricated by μMIM. Mater Charact 57:80–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Srivatsan TS, Woods R, Petraroli M, Sudarshan TS (2002) An investigation of the influence of powder particle size on microstructure and hardness of bulk samples of tungsten carbide. Powder Technol 122:54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu L, Loh NH, Tay BY, Tor SB, Khor KA, Murakoshi Y (2005) Mixing and characterization of 316L stainless steel feedstock to micro powder injection molding. Mater Charact 54:230–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sahli M, Gelin J-C (2013) Development of a feedstock formulation based on polypropylene for micro-powder soft embossing process of 316L stainless steel micro-channel part. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69:2139–2148CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applied Mechanics DepartmentFemto-ST Institute, UMR 6174 CNRS, ENSMMBesanconFrance

Personalised recommendations