The effect of FSP on mechanical, tribological, and corrosion behavior of composite layer developed on magnesium AZ91 alloy surface

  • M. AbbasiEmail author
  • B. Bagheri
  • M. Dadaei
  • H. R. Omidvar
  • M. Rezaei


Friction stir processing (FSP) has been applied to modify the surface characteristics of metals. Development of surface composites through FSP has been addressed by different research studies. During the process, generally hard particles are embedded in the soft matrix through stirring. In the current research, surface composites were developed on the surface of AZ91 magnesium base alloy. SiC and Al2O3 particles were embedded separately in the surface and accordingly two kinds of composites were developed. Different characteristics, namely mechanical, tribological, and corrosion behavior, were analyzed. The results showed that mechanical properties as well as strength, hardness, and ductility of FS-processed samples were higher than the as-received one. It was concluded that wear and corrosion resistance of FS-processed samples were higher than the as-received material. The results also indicated that by increment of pass number, the mechanical properties improved, corrosion resistance increased, and wear rate decreased. The results also showed that samples processed using SiC particles had better mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance than samples processed using Al2O3 particles, although particle type did not have significant effect on wear rate.


Friction stir processing AZ91 magnesium alloy Surface composite Wear Corrosion 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Singh J, Lal H, Bala N (2013) Investigations on the wear behavior of friction stir processed magnesium based AZ91 alloy. Int J Mech Eng Robot Res 2:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asadi P, Faraji GH, Besharati MK (2010) Producing of AZ91/SiC composite by friction stir processing (FSP). Int J Adv Manuf Technol 51:247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Çam G (2011) Friction stir welded structural materials: beyond Al-alloys. Int Mater Rev 56:1–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mishra RS, Ma ZY (2005) Friction stir welding and processing. Mater Sci Eng R 50:1–78CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Çam G, Mistikoglu S (2014) Recent development in friction stir welding of Al-alloys. J Mater Eng Perform 23:1936–1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Uematsu Y, Tokaji K, Fujiwara K, Tozaki Y, Shibata H (2009) Fatigue behavior of cast magnesium alloy AZ91 microstructurally modified by friction stir processing. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 32:541–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dadaei M, Omidvar H, Bagheri B, Jehazi M, Abbasi M (2014) The effect of SiC/Al2O3 particles used during FSP on mechanical properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy. Int J Mater Res 105:369–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sterling CJ (2010) Effects of friction stir processing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of fusion welded 304 L stainless steel. Thesis, Brigham Young University, USA, M. ScGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Srinivasan A, Ajithkumar KK, Swaminathan J, Pillai UTS, Pai BC (2013) Creep behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy. Procedia Eng 55:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arora HS, Singh HS, Dhindaw BK (2012) Some observations on microstructural changes in a Mg-based AE42 alloy subjected to friction stir processing. Metall Mater Trans B43:92–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Faraji G, Dastani O, Mousavi SAAA (2011) Effect of process parameters on microstructure and micro-hardness of AZ91/Al2O3 surface composite produced by FSP. J Mater Eng Perform 20:1583–1590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Karthikeyan L, Senthilkumar VS, Padmanabhan KA (2010) On the role of process variables in the friction stir processing of cast aluminum A319 alloy. Mater Des 31:761–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    13 ASTM-E8M (2003) Standard test methods of tension testing of metallic materials [metric], Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 3.01, American Society for Testing and Materials, USA (2003).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dadaei M (2011) Investigation into the effects of FSP on different properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy. Thesis, Department of Materials Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, M. ScGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    15 ASTM-G99 (2003) Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus, Vol. 3.02, American Society for Testing and Materials, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Callister WD (2007) Materials science and engineering: an introduction. Wiley, USAGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ma ZY, Pilchak AL, Juhas MC, Williams JC (2008) Microstructural refinement and property enhancement of cast light alloys via friction stir processing. Scripta Mater 58:361–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tutunchilar S, Haghpanahi M, Besharati Givi MK, Asadi P, Bahemmat P (2012) Simulation of material flow in friction stir processing of a cast Al-Si alloy. Mater Des 40:415–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Naderi M, Abbasi M, Saeed-Akbari A (2013) Enhanced mechanical properties of a hot-stamped advanced high-strength steel via tempering treatment. Metall Mater Trans A44:1852–1861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sarkar AD (1976) Wear of metals. Elsevier, USAGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Archard JF (1953) Contact and rubbing of flat surfaces. J Appl Phy 24:981–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shi Z, Liu M, Atrens A (2010) Measurement of the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys using Tafel extrapolation. Corr Sci 52:579–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Abbasi
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. Bagheri
    • 2
  • M. Dadaei
    • 3
  • H. R. Omidvar
    • 2
  • M. Rezaei
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of KashanKashanIran
  2. 2.Department of Mining and MetallurgyAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran
  3. 3.Chaharmahal Bakhtiari automotive sheet companyChaharmahal BakhtiariIran

Personalised recommendations