A combined additive manufacturing and micro-syringe deposition technique for realization of bio-ceramic structures with micro-scale channels

  • Mihaela Vlasea
  • Yaser Shanjani
  • Annabel Bothe
  • Rita Kandel
  • Ehsan Toyserkani


This article presents a novel rapid layered manufacturing approach based on a combined additive manufacturing (AM) process and a UV-based micro-syringe deposition (μSD) technique to be used in the fabrication of bio-ceramic structures with controlled micro-sized channels for bone and osteochondral tissue regeneration. In the proposed rapid manufacturing method, micro-scale sacrificial photopolymer networks are integrated within the manufactured part by depositing the photopolymer on selected bio-ceramic powder layers using an injection system. This AM–μSD method along with a post-processing protocol can potentially overcome current limitations of traditional powder-based AM approaches that are restricted in terms of complexity of internal architecture and feature size. For bone or osteochondral repair applications, the material system composed of the bio-ceramic and sacrificial photopolymer, along with the post-processing protocol, must ensure that the final implants are free from manufacturing residuals that could trigger an immune response post-implantation. In this study, calcium polyphosphate bio-ceramic was used as the substrate material based on prior art, polyvinyl alcohol solution was used as the powder binding agent, and ethoxylated (10 bisphenol A diacrylate) photopolymer solution was used as the sacrificial photopolymer element. Material characterization suggests that the proposed material system along with heat treatment protocol is suitable for the targeted applications where micro-scale channels within the implant are produced by AM–μSD.


Additive manufacturing Micro-syringe deposition Calcium polyphosphate Sacrificial photopolymer Bio-ceramic 


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© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mihaela Vlasea
    • 1
  • Yaser Shanjani
    • 2
  • Annabel Bothe
    • 3
  • Rita Kandel
    • 4
  • Ehsan Toyserkani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Hamburg University of TechnologyHamburgGermany
  4. 4.CIHR-Bioengineering of Skeletal Tissues TeamMount Sinai HospitalTorontoCanada

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