Influence of process parameters on surface roughness of aluminum parts produced by DMLS

  • F. CalignanoEmail author
  • D. Manfredi
  • E. P. Ambrosio
  • L. Iuliano
  • P. Fino


Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is an additive manufacturing technique for the fabrication of near net-shaped parts directly from computer-aided design data by melting together different layers with the help of a laser source. This paper presents an investigation of the surface roughness of aluminum samples produced by DMLS. A model based on an L18 orthogonal array of Taguchi design was created to perform experimental planning. Some input parameters, namely laser power, scan speed, and hatching distance were selected for the investigation. The upper surfaces of the samples were analyzed before and after shot peening. The morphology was analyzed by means of field emission scanning electron microscope. Scan speed was found to have the greatest influence on the surface roughness. Further, shot peening can effectively reduce the surface roughness.


Aluminum AlSi10Mg Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) Taguchi method Surface roughness 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    ASTM (2010) F2792-10e1 Standard terminology for additive manufacturing technologies. ASTM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chua CK, Leong KF, Lim CS (2003) Rapid prototyping: principles and applications. World Scientific, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ho HCH, Cheung WL, Gibson I (2002) Effects of graphite powder on the laser sintering behaviour of polycarbonate. Rapid Prototyp J 8:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhu HH, Lu L, Fuh JYH (2003) Development and characterization of direct laser sintering Cu-based metal powder. J Mater Process Technol 140:314–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Steen WM (1998) Laser material processing, 2nd edn. Springer, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Das S, Fuesting TP, Danyo G, Brown LE, Beaman JJ, Bourell DL (2000) Direct laser fabrication of superalloy cermet abrasive turbine blade tips. Mater Des 21:63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hopkinson N, Hague RJM, Dickens PM (2006) Rapid manufacturing: an industrial revolution for the digital age. Wiley, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gibson I, Shi D (1997) Material properties and fabrication parameters in selective laser sintering process. Rapid Prototyp J 3(4):129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hao L, Dadbakhsh S, Seaman O, Felstead M (2009) Selective laser melting of a stainless steel and hydroxyapatite composite for load-bearing implant development. J Mater Process Technol 209:5793–5801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chatterjee AN, Kumar S, Saha P, Mishra PK, Choudhury AR (2003) An experimental design approach to selective laser sintering of low carbon steel. J Mater Process Technol 136:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dewidar MM, Lim JK, Dalgarno KW (2008) A comparison between direct and indirect selective laser sintering of metals. J Mater Sci Technol 24(2):227–232Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kathuria YP (1999) Microstructuring by selective laser sintering of metallic powder. Surf Coat Technol 116–119:643–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Deckers J, Shahzad K, Vleugels J, Kruth JP (2012) Isostatic pressing assisted indirect selective laser sintering of alumina components. Rapid Prototyp J 18(5):409–419(11)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wohlert M, Bourell D, Lee G, Beaman J (1996) Production of full density metal-matrix composite by a combined selective laser sintering/metal infiltration process. Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials VGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Harlan NR, Bourell D, Park SM, Beaman JJ (2000) Selective laser sintering of zirconia. Proc. Conf. on Solid Freeform and Additive Fabrication: A Materials Research Society SymposiumGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Simchi A, Petzoldt F, Pohl H (2003) On development of direct metal laser sintering for rapid tooling. J Mater Process Technol 141:319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Simchi A (2006) Direct laser sintering of metal powders: mechanism, kinetics, and microstructural features. Mat Sci Eng A 428:148–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Booysen GJ , Truscott M , Els J, De Beer DJ (2011) Development of patient-specific implants using direct metal laser sintering in titanium. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping, Leiria, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Delgado J, Ciurana J, Rodríguez CA (2012) Influence of process parameters on part quality and mechanical properties for DMLS and SLM with iron-based materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 60:601–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kruth JP, Levy G, Klocke F, Childs THC (2007) Consolidation phenomena in laser and powder-bed based layered manufacturing. CIRP Ann 56(2):730–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dalgarno K (2007) Materials research to support high performance RM parts. Rapid Manufacturing 2nd International Conference, Loughborough University, 9–12 July: 147–56Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sachdeva A, Singh S, Sharma VS (2012) Investigating surface roughness of parts produced by SLS process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol. doi: 10.1007/s00170-012-4118-z
  23. 23.
    Song Y (1997) Experimental study of the basic process mechanism for direct selective laser sintering of low-melting powder. Ann CIRP 46(1):127–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Masood SH, Rattanawong W, Iovenitti P (2003) A generic algorithm for a best part orientation system for complex parts in rapid prototyping. J Mater Process Technol 139(1–3):110–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Byun HS, Lee KH (2006) Determination of the optimal build direction for different rapid prototyping processes using multicriterion decision making. Rob Comput Integr Manuf 22(1):69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ning Y, Fuh JYH, Wong YS, Loh HT (2004) An intelligent parameter selection system for direct metal laser sintering process. Int J Prod Res 42(1):183–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Spierings AB, Herres N, Levy G (2011) Influence of the particle size distribution on surface quality and mechanical properties in AM steel parts. Rapid Prototyp J 17(3):195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Taguchi G (1990) Introduction to quality engineering. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dingal S, Pradhan TR, Sundar S, Roy Choudhury A, Roy SK (2004) Experimental investigation of selective laser sintering of iron powder by application of Taguchi method. In: Proceedings of the 2004 Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yang HJ, Hwang PJ, Lee SH (2002) A study on shrinkage compensation of the SLS process by using the Taguchi method. Int J Mach Tool Manu 42:1203–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Senthilkumaran K, Pandey PM, Rao PVM (2009) Influence of building strategies on the accuracy of parts in selective laser sintering. Mater Des 30:2946–2954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    EOS (2009) EOSint M 270 User ManualGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ramos JA, Bourell DL, Beaman JJ (2003) Surface over-melt during laser polishing of indirect-SLS metal parts. Mater Res Soc Symp 758:53–61Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kruth JP, Froyen L, Van Vaerenbergh J, Mercelis P, Rombouts M, Lauwers B (2004) Selective laser melting of iron-based powder. J Mater Process Technol 149(1–3):616–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Calignano
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Manfredi
    • 1
  • E. P. Ambrosio
    • 1
  • L. Iuliano
    • 2
  • P. Fino
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Space Human Robotics IIT@PolitoIstituto Italiano di TecnologiaTurinItaly
  2. 2.DIGEP—Dipartimento di Ingegneria Gestionale e della ProduzionePolitecnico di TorinoTurinItaly
  3. 3.DISAT—Dipartimento Scienza Applicata e TecnologiaPolitecnico di TorinoTurinItaly

Personalised recommendations