Overlap conduction laser welding of aluminium to steel

  • S. Meco
  • G. Pardal
  • S. Ganguly
  • R. M. Miranda
  • L. Quintino
  • S. Williams


In the present study, a continuous wave fibre laser was used in conduction mode to join aluminium alloys to low carbon steel. Two different sets of experiments were performed: with Zn-coated steel and uncoated steel. Welding was carried out in overlap configuration with steel plate on the top aiming to conduct the heat through the steel and melt the aluminium at the interface, wetting the steel substrate. Metallurgical incompatibilities between these two participating alloys originate the formation of intermetallic phases. Therefore, restricting melting of the aluminium would limit the formation and growth of the intermetallic layer (IML). It was shown that the power density of the laser could be used such that, at the interface, aluminium only melts and the steel remains in solid state. The uncoated steel showed a regular pattern of IML formation, while the Zn-coated steel showed a different pattern of IML.


Laser welding Conduction mode Aluminium Cladded steel Microstructure 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kreimeyer M, Wagner F, Sepold G (2004) Development of a combined joining-forming process for aluminum-steel joints. Proc. of the 23rd International Cong. on Applications of Lasers & Electro-OpticsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sierra G, Peyre P, Deshaux-Beaume F, Stuart D, Fras G (2007) Steel to aluminium key-hole laser welding. Mater Sci Eng A 447:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Torkamany MJ, Tahamtan S, Sabbaghzadeh J (2010) Dissimilar welding of carbon steel to 5754 aluminum alloy by Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Mater Des 31:458–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang WH, Qiu XM, Sun DQ, Han LJ (2011) Effects of resistance spot welding parameters on microstructures and mechanical properties of dissimilar material joints of galvanised high strength steel and aluminium alloy. Sci Technol Weld Join 16:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lin SB, Song JL, Yang CL, Fan CL, Zhang DW (2010) Brazability of dissimilar metals tungsten inert gas butt welding–brazing between aluminum alloy and stainless steel with Al–Cu filler metal. Mater Des 31:2637–2642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen H-C, Pinkerton AJ, Li L, Liu Z, Mistry AT (2011) Gap-free fibre laser welding of Zn-coated steel on Al alloy for light-weight automotive applications. Mater Des 32:495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Borrisutthekul R, Yashi T, Miyashita Y, Mutoh Y (2007) Suppression of intermetallic reaction layer formation by controlling heat flow in dissimilar joining of steel and aluminium alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 467:108–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ding JJ, Huang HJ, Peyre P, Fabbro R (2006) Temperature criterion of laser welding for joining aluminum alloy with low-carbon steel. Mater Manuf Process 21:59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thomy C, Grupp M, Schilf M, Seefeld T, Vollertsen F (2004) Welding of aluminium and steel with high-power fibre lasers. Proc 23rd Int. Cong. on Applications of Lasers & Electro-OpticsGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sierra G, Peyre P, Deschaux Beaume F, Stuart Frédéric Coste D, Fras G (2004) Nd:YAG laser welding of aluminium to low carbon steel. Proc. 23rd Int. Cong. Applications of Lasers & Electro-OpticsGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mathieu A, Pontevicci S, Viala JC, Cicala E, Mattei S (2006) Laser brazing of a steel/aluminium assembly with hot filler wire (88 %AL, 12 % Si). Mater Sci Eng A 435:19–28Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dharmendra C, Rao KP, Wilden J (2011) Study on laser welding-brazing of zinc coated steel to aluminum alloy with a zinc based filler. Mater Sci Eng A 528:1497–1503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Assuncao E, Williams S, Yapp D (2010) Interaction time effects on the transition between conduction and keyhole laser welding, Proc. 29th Int. Congr. on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, ICALEO 103:209-216Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Okon P (2003) Laser conduction welding of aluminium alloys. PhD Thesis, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    ASM (1998) ASM handbook: volume 3: alloy phase diagram, 2nd edn. ASM International, NYGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Agudo L, Eyidi D, Schmaranzer CH, Arenholz E, Jank N, Bruckner J, Pyzalla AR (2007) Intermetallic FexAly-phases in a steel/l-alloy fusion weld. J Mater Sci 42:4205–4214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thomy C (2009) Hybrid laser-arc welding of dissimilar metals. In: Olsen FO (ed) Hybrid laser-arc welding. Woodhead Publishing Limited, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Meco
    • 1
  • G. Pardal
    • 1
  • S. Ganguly
    • 1
  • R. M. Miranda
    • 2
  • L. Quintino
    • 3
    • 4
  • S. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Cranfield UniversityCranfieldUK
  2. 2.UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCTUniversidade Nova de LisboaCaparicaPortugal
  3. 3.IST-UTL Instituto Superior TécnicoLisboaPortugal
  4. 4.IDMEC, Institute of Mechanical EngineeringTULISBONLisboaPortugal

Personalised recommendations