Advertisement

Validation of iGPS as an external measurement system for cooperative robot positioning

  • Andrew R. NormanEmail author
  • Alexander Schönberg
  • Igor A. Gorlach
  • Robert Schmitt
Original Article

Abstract

External metrology systems are increasingly being used in modern manufacturing to improve the accuracy of industrial robots. In this paper, the problem of achieving absolute accuracy in the positioning and movement of cooperating robots is addressed using the indoor GPS (iGPS) technology as an external position measurement system for real-time feedback and control. This metrology system is presented as an introduction to the iGPS-based 3D Pose Detector and a new concept using generalised measurement systems inspired by iGPS. Attached to the robot end-effectors, the receivers allow coordinate frame measurements to provide spatial information on the robot poses in six degrees of freedom. Experimental results show a strong correspondence between iGPS measurements of cooperating robot end-effector positioning and the control measurements obtained from a double ballbar. Ballbar measurements are further used to determine the relative accuracy between state-of-the-art cooperating manipulators. The iGPS system is validated as an external measurement system using a ballbar device, and its use in the external control of basic robotic tasks is demonstrated. The predicted accuracy achievable for the robots when being controlled or compensated is determined to be at least within 0.3 mm, subject to improvements with continuing research and refinements.

Keywords

Indoor GPS iGPS Cooperating robots Double ballbar Robot control Metrology  Uncertainty 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Arai T, Maeda Y, Kikuchi H, Sugi M (2002) Automated calibration of robot coordinates for reconfigurable assembly systems. Annals of the CIRP 51(1):5–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Swain AK, Morris AS (2004) Dynamic control of multi-arm co-operating manipulator systems. Robotica 22:271–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reinhart G, Gräser R-G, Klingel R (1998) Qualification of standard industrial robots to cope with sophisticated assembly tasks. Annals of the CIRP 47(1):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Young K, Pickin CG (2000) Accuracy assessment of the modern industrial robot. Ind Rob 27(6):427–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alici G, Shirinzadeh B (2005) A systematic technique to estimate positioning errors for robot accuracy improvement using laser interferometry based sensing. Mech Mach Theory 40:879–906zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cuypers W, Van Gestel N, Voet A, Kruth J-P, Mingneau J, Bleys P (2009) Optical measurement techniques for mobile and large-scale dimensional metrology. Opt Lasers Eng 47:292–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Norman AR, Schönberg A, Gorlach IA, Schmitt R (2010) Cooperation of industrial robots with indoor-GPS. In: Proceedings of the international conference on competitive manufacturing–COMA ’10, pp 215–224, Stellenbosch University, South Africa, 3–5 Feb 2010Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Franceschini F, Galetto M, Maisano D, Mastrogiacomo L, Pralio B (2011) Distributed large-scale dimensional metrology: new insights. Springer, LondonzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Müller T, Schwendemann J (2009) iGPS—ein vielseitiges Messsytem hoher Genauigkeit. Allg Vermess Nachr 4:146–157Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Depenthal C, Schwendemann J (2009) iGPS—a new system for static and kinematic measurements. In: Proceedings of the 9th conference on optical 3D measurement techniques, vol 9(1). Vienna, Austria, pp 131–140, 1–3 July 2009Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schmitt R, Nisch S, Schönberg A, Demeester F, Renders S (2010) Performance evaluation of iGPS for industrial applications. In: Proceedings of the international conference on indoor positioning and indoor navigation–IPIN 2010. Zurich, Switzerland, pp 448–455, 15–17 Sept 2010Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Muelaner JE, Wang Z, Martin O, Jamshidi J, Maropoulos PG (2010) Verification of the indoor GPS system, by comparison with calibrated coordinates and by angular reference. J Intell Manuf. doi: 10.1007/s10845-010-0488-y Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hughes B, Forbes A, Sun W, Maropoulos P, Muelaner J, Jamshidi J, Wang Z (2010) iGPS capability study. Research Report. National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UKGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang Z, Mastrogiacomo L, Franceschini F, Maropoulos P (2011) Experimental comparison of dynamic tracking performance of iGPS and laser tracker. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 56:205–213. doi: 10.1007/s00170-011-3166-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Depenthal C (2010) Path tracking with iGPS. In: Proceedings of the international conference on indoor positioning and indoor navigation–IPIN 2010. Zurich, Switzerland, pp 421–426, 15–17 Sept 2010Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kang S-H, Tesar D (2004) Indoor GPS metrology system with 3D probe for precision applications. In: Proceedings of the ASME international mechanical engineering congress and RD&D exposition–IMECE ’04. Anaheim, USA, pp 62005:1–8, 13–19 Nov 2004Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arc Second (2002) Constellation 3D-i: error budget and specifications. White Paper 063102. Arc Second, Inc., Dulles, VAGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Metris (2007) iGPS: data sheet v1.3 (DS-iGPS-140807). Metris HQ, LeuvenGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Metris (2009) iSpace—portable metrology systems: user manual and startup guide (EUM-0039-001). Metris Canada, WaterlooGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Renishaw (2008) QC10 ballbar system: quickly diagnose the performance of your machine tools (L-8014-0909-01). Renishaw plc, Wotton-under-EdgeGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Renishaw (2010) QC20-W wireless ballbar system description and specifications (L-8014-1588-02 C). Renishaw plc, Wotton-under-EdgeGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schmitt R, Schönberg A, Damm B (2010) Indoor-GPS based robots as a key technology for versatile production. In: Proceedings of the joint conference of the 41st international symposium on robotics (ISR 2010) and the 6th German conference on robotics (ROBOTIK 2010). Munich, Germany, pp 199–205, 7–9 June 2010Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Demeester F, Dresselhaus M, Essel I, Jatzkowski P, Nau M, Pause B, Plapper P, Schmitt R, Schönberg A, Voss H (2011) Referenzsysteme für wandlungsfähige Produktion. In: Brecher C, Klocke F, Schmitt R, Schuh G (eds) Wettbewerbsfaktor Produktionstechnik - Aachener Perspektiven. Aachen, Germany, pp 449–474Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew R. Norman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexander Schönberg
    • 2
  • Igor A. Gorlach
    • 1
  • Robert Schmitt
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MechatronicsNelson Mandela Metropolitan UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa
  2. 2.Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL)RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations