Tool path generation and modification for constant cutting forces in direction parallel milling

  • Hyun-Chul Kim


This paper presents an optimized path generation algorithm for direction parallel milling, which is commonly used in the roughing and finishing stages. First, a geometrically efficient tool path generation algorithm using an intersection points graph is introduced. Second, the generated tool path is modified as an optimized tool path that maintains a constant material removal rate to achieve a constant cutting force and avoid chatter vibration, and the results are verified. Additional tool path segments are appended to the basic tool path through a pixel-based simulation technique. The algorithm is implemented for two-dimensional contiguous end milling operations with flat end mills, and cutting tests are conducted by measuring the spindle current, which reflects the changing machining situations, to verify the performance of the proposed method.


NC pocket machining Direction parallel tool path Constant cutting force Material removal rate 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Held M (1991) On the computational geometry of pocket machining. Springer-Verlag, BerlinMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Patrikalakis NM, Maekawa T (2002) Shape interrogation for computer aided design and manufacturing. Springer-Verlag, BerlinMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jun CS, Kim DS, Park SH (2002) A new curve-based approach to polyhedral machining. Comput-Aided Des 34(5):379–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Persson H (1978) NC machining of arbitrary shaped pockets. Comput-Aided Des 10(3):169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bruckner LK (1982) Geometric algorithms for 2.5D roughing process of sculptured surfaces. In: Proceedings of the Joint Anglo-Hungarian Seminar on Computer-Aided Geometric Design, Budapest, Hungary, October 1982Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prabhu P, Gramopadhye A, Wang H (1990) A general mathematical model for optimizing NC tool path for face milling of flat convex polygon surfaces. Int J Prod Res 28(1):101–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kramer TR (1992) Pocket milling with tool engagement detection. J Manuf Syst 11(2):114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hansen A, Arbab F (1992) An algorithm for generating NC tool path for arbitrary shaped pockets with islands. ACM Trans Graph 11(2):152–182MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Held M, Lukacs G, Andor L (1994) Pocket machining based on contour-parallel tool paths generated by means of proximity maps. Comput-Aided Des 26(3):189–203MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lambregts C, Delbressine F, de Vries W, van der Wolf A (1996) An efficient automatic tool path generator for 21/2D free-form pockets. Comput Ind 29(3):151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jeong J, Kim K (1999) Generating tool paths for free-form pocket machining using z-buffer-based voronoi diagrams. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 15(3):182–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Held M (1991) A geometry-based investigation of the tool path generation for zigzag pocket machining. Vis Comput 7:296–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tang K, Chou S, Chen L (1998) An algorithm for reducing tool retraction in zigzag pocket machining. Comput-Aided Des 30(2):123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Park SC, Choi BK (2003) Tool-path planning for direction-parallel area milling. Comput-Aided Des 32(1):17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Manuel M, Rodriguez CA (2003) Influence of tool path strategy on the cycle time of high-speed milling. Comput-Aided Des 35(4):395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tlusty J, Smith S, Zamudia C (1990) New NC routines for quality in milling. CIRP Ann 39(1):517–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smith S, Cheng E, Zamudia C (1991) Computer-aided generation of optimum chatter-free pockets. J Mater Process Technol 28:275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee DY, Kim SY, Lee SG, Yang MY (2003) Incomplete mesh based tool path generation. Proceeding of the SMPE Spring Conference 2003:844–847Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Iwabe H, Fujii Y, Saito K, Kisinami T (1989) Study on corner cut by end mill analysis of cutting mechanism and new cutting method at inside corner. J Japan Society Precision Engineering 99(5):841–846Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tsai MD, Takata S, Inui M, Kimura F, Sata T (1991) Operation planning based on cutting process models. CIRP Ann 40(1):95–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu Y, Zuo L, Wang C (1999) Intelligent adaptive control in milling processes. Int J Comput Integr Manuf 12:453–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim SC, Chung SC (1999) Robust cutting force control using indirect force and disturbance estimation in the end milling process. Proc ASPE 20:248–251Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yang MY, Lee TM (2002) Hybrid adaptive control based on the characteristics of CNC end milling. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 42:489–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.High Safety Vehicle Core Technology Research Center, Department of Mechanical and Automotive EngineeringInje UniversityGimhaeSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations