Cooling in grind-hardening operations

  • Konstantinos Salonitis
  • George Chryssolouris
Original Article


The grind hardening process utilizes the heat dissipation in the grinding area for inducing metallurgical transformation on the surface of the ground workpiece. The workpiece surface is selectively heated above the austenitisation temperature and subsequently is self-quenched so as to achieve the anticipated surface hardening. In order for self-quenching to occur sufficient material mass must be present to conduct the heat away from the surface. However, in the case of grind-hardening of thin workpieces or cylindrical workpieces of small diameter, the quenching has to be assisted with the application of coolant fluid. In this paper, the utilization of the coolant fluid for the grind-hardening of small diameter cylindrical parts is investigated. The rapid heating of the workpiece and the short austenitising time are taken into consideration both for the estimation of the hardness profile and the hardness penetration depth (HPD). A finite element analysis (FEA) model is developed for this specific case and its predictions are verified experimentally.


Grinding Grind-hardening Heat treatment process Process modeling Surface hardening 



Hardness penetration depth


Finite element analysis


Continuous cooling temperature



Austenitising temperature (°C)


Depth of cut (m)


Grinding wheel width (m)


Specific heat (J/kgK)


Diameter (m)


Martensite transformation fraction (-)


Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)


Hardness penetration depth (mm)


Hardness in Vickers


thermal conductivity (W/mK)


Geometric contact length (m)


Temperature at which transformation from martensite to austenite begins (°C)


Heat flux (W/mm2)


Heat rate entering the workpiece (W)


Cylindrical coordinates (m)


Workpiece radius (m)


Temperature (°C)


Time (s)


Speed (m/s)

Greek letters and symbols


Cylindrical coordinate (rad)


Density (kg/m3)


Rotational speed (rad/s)









Ambient and initial




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The work reported in this paper was partially supported by the CEC Growth Programme (GRD1-2001-40535), “Development of low energy and eco-efficient grinding technologies”.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering and AeronauticsUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece

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