Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, validation, and measurement properties of the Spanish version of the anterior cruciate ligament-return to sport after injury (ACL-RSI-Sp) scale
- 104 Downloads
To translate into Spanish and validate the anterior cruciate ligament-return to sport after injury (ACL-RSI) scale, and to evaluate the psychological factors that have the greatest impact on the return to play among Spanish football players.
The ACL-RSI was first translated into Spanish by two teams of bilingual experts. At the time of discharge, 114 amateur and semi-professional football players who underwent ACL reconstruction answered a questionnaire regarding demographic and injury-related data, along with the translated ACL-RSI, the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-11SV) and the injury-psychological readiness to return to sport (I-PRRS). Statistical analysis included reliability tests (Cronbach’s alpha and test–retest), construct validity and exploratory factor analysis.
The ACL-RSI-Sp showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.9), temporal stability (test–retest r = 0.9) and significant moderate correlations with the KOOS subscales of symptoms (r = 0.4; p < 0.01), pain (r = 0.4; p < 0.01), daily life (r = 0.4; p < 0.01), “sport” (r = 0.5; p < 0.01) and quality of life (r = 0.6; p < 0.01). Significant moderate and strong correlations were also observed for the ACL-RSI-Sp with the TSK (r = − 0.5; p < 0.01) and the I-PRRS (r = 0.8; p < 0.01), respectively. Confidence in performance (1) and fear and insecurity (2) explained 62.6% of the total variance in ACL-RSI-Sp.
The ACL-RSI-Sp was a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate the relevant psychological factors in the return to sports of Spanish football players after ACL reconstruction. Players’ confidence in performance and fear and insecurity were the most important factors influencing the return to play in this population.
Level of evidence
KeywordsACL reconstruction Psychological factors Return to sport Patient-reported measures
ES, PAD, and JTS: have made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data. ES, PAD, EAG, KEW, RC, and JTS: have been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content. ES, PAD, EAG, KEW, RC, and JTS: have given final approval of the version to be published. ES, PAD, EAG, KEW, RC, and JTS: agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
No funding was received for the present study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest for the present study.
This study has been conducted in accordance with the ethical standards at our Institution and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments.
- 8.Gómez P, Sainz de Baranda P, Ortega E, Contreras O, Olmedilla A (2014) Diseño y validación de un cuestionario sobre la percepción del deportista respecto a su reincorporación al entrenamiento (Design and validation of a questionnaire about the perception of the athlete regarding their re-entry into training). Revista de Psicología del Deporte 23:479–487 (Spanish) Google Scholar
- 12.Corp IBM (2016) IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0. IBM Corp, ArmonkGoogle Scholar
- 14.Kori SH, Miller RP, Todd DD (1990) Kinesiophobia: a new view of chronic pain behavior. Pain Manag 3:35–43Google Scholar
- 16.Lai CCH, Ardern CL, Feller JA, Webster KE (2018) Eighty-three per cent of elite athletes return to preinjury sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review with meta-analysis of return to sport rates, graft rupture rates and performance outcomes. Br J Sports Med 52:128–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Vaquero J, Longo UG, Forriol F, Martinelli N, Vethencourt R et al (2014) Reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Spanish version of the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) in patients with chondral lesion of the knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 22:104–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar