Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 159–164 | Cite as

Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the anterior cruciate ligament-return to sport after injury (ACL-RSI) scale into Turkish

  • Gulcan HarputEmail author
  • Damla Tok
  • Burak Ulusoy
  • Leyla Eraslan
  • Taha Ibrahim Yildiz
  • Elif Turgut
  • Serdar Demirci
  • Irem Duzgun
  • Volga Bayrakci Tunay
  • Gul Baltaci
  • Nevin Ergun



To translate and culturally adapt the anterior cruciate ligament-return to sport after injury (ACL-RSI) scale into Turkish (ACL-RSI-Tr) and examine and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version in individuals who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.


The ACL-RSI was forward- and back-translated, culturally adapted and validated on ninety-three Turkish individuals who had undergone ACL reconstruction (5 females, 88 males; age 28.7 ± 8.6 years; body mass 80.1 ± 13.9 kg; height 178.8 ± 6.9 cm; body mass index 25.0 ± 3.7 kg/m2). All patients completed the translated ACL-RSI, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and International Knee Documentary Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm questionnaires. We then analysed the internal consistency, reliability and validity of the newly formed ACL-RSI-Tr scale.


The ACL-RSI-Tr showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.86) and test–retest reliability (ICC 0.92) and was significantly correlated with the KOOS ‘quality of life’ (r = 0.58, p < 0.002), ‘symptoms and stiffness’ (r = 0.35, p = 0.001), ‘pain’ (r = 0.49, p < 0.001), ‘sports’ (r = 0.44, p < 0.001) and ‘daily life’ (r = 0.42, p < 0.001) subscales. The ACL-RSI-Tr also correlated significantly with the TSK (r = − 0.45, p < 0.001), Lysholm (r = 0.45, p < 0.001) and IKDC (r = 0.44, p < 0.001) scores.


The Turkish version of the ACL-RSI scale was valid, discriminant, consistent and reliable in patients who had undergone ACL reconstruction. This score could be useful to evaluate the effect of psychological factors on return to sport following ACL surgery.

Level of evidence

Diagnostic study, Level I.


Anterior cruciate ligament Knee joint Patient-reported outcomes Return to sport 



The authors would like to thank Derya Celik for valuable advice in methodology and reporting of data.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gulcan Harput
    • 1
    Email author
  • Damla Tok
    • 1
  • Burak Ulusoy
    • 1
  • Leyla Eraslan
    • 1
  • Taha Ibrahim Yildiz
    • 1
  • Elif Turgut
    • 1
  • Serdar Demirci
    • 1
  • Irem Duzgun
    • 1
  • Volga Bayrakci Tunay
    • 1
  • Gul Baltaci
    • 2
  • Nevin Ergun
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health SciencesHacettepe UniversitySamanpazari, AnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Ankara Private Guven HospitalAnkaraTurkey

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