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Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 1048–1054 | Cite as

Anterolateral ligament anatomy: a comparative anatomical study

  • Sheila Jean McNeill Ingham
  • Rogerio Teixeira de Carvalho
  • Cesar A. Q. Martins
  • Pisit Lertwanich
  • Rene Jorge Abdalla
  • Patrick Smolinski
  • C. Owen Lovejoy
  • Freddie H. FuEmail author
Knee

Abstract

Purpose

Some anatomical studies have indicated that the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee is distinct ligamentous structure in humans. The purpose of this study is to compare the lateral anatomy of the knee among human and various animal specimens.

Methods

Fifty-eight fresh-frozen knee specimens, from 24 different animal species, were used for this anatomical study. The same researchers dissected all the specimens in this study, and dissections were performed in a careful and standardized manner.

Results

An ALL was not found in any of the 58 knees dissected. Another interesting finding in this study is that some primate species (the prosimians: the red and black and white lemurs) have two LCLs.

Conclusion

The clinical relevance of this study is the lack of isolation of the ALL as a unique structure in animal species. Therefore, precaution is recommended before assessing the need for surgery to reconstruct the ALL as a singular ligament.

Keywords

Knee Anatomical study Anterolateral ligament Comparative anatomy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Cindy Stadler DVM and the Pittsburgh Zoo staff for all their help with the animal species. We also thank Monica Linde-Rosen for all the help with the laboratory work. This study was financed by a grant from the Heinz Endowments.

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Copyright information

© European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheila Jean McNeill Ingham
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rogerio Teixeira de Carvalho
    • 2
  • Cesar A. Q. Martins
    • 1
  • Pisit Lertwanich
    • 1
    • 3
  • Rene Jorge Abdalla
    • 2
  • Patrick Smolinski
    • 4
  • C. Owen Lovejoy
    • 5
  • Freddie H. Fu
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj HospitalMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material ScienceUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  5. 5.Department of Anthropology, School of Biomedical SciencesKent State UniversityKentUSA

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