Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

, Volume 23, Issue 10, pp 2950–2959 | Cite as

Clinically relevant anatomy and what anatomic reconstruction means

  • Robert F. LaPrade
  • Samuel G. Moulton
  • Marco Nitri
  • Werner Mueller
  • Lars Engebretsen
Knee

Abstract

Background

Within the past 20 years, knee ligament injuries have been increasingly reported in the literature to be treated with anatomic reconstructions over soft tissue advancements or sling-type procedures to recreate the native anatomy and restore knee function. Historically, early clinician scientists published on the qualitative anatomy of the knee, which provided a foundation for the initial knee biomechanical studies in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Similarly, the work of early sports medicine orthopaedic clinician scientists in the late twentieth century formed the basis for the quantitative anatomic and functional robotic biomechanical studies found currently in the sports medicine orthopaedic literature. The development of an anatomic reconstruction first requires an appreciation of the quantitative anatomy and function of each major stabilizing component of the knee.

Purpose

This paper provides an overview of the initial qualitative anatomic studies from which the initial knee ligament surgeries were based and expands to recent detailed quantitative studies of the major knee ligaments and the renewed recent focus on anatomic surgical reconstructions.

Conclusions

Anatomic repairs and reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and posterolateral corner attempt to restore knee function by rebuilding or restoring the native anatomy. The basis of anatomic reconstruction techniques is a detailed understanding of quantitative knee anatomy. Additionally, an appreciation of the function of each component is necessary to ensure surgical success.

Level of evidence

V.

Keywords

Complex knee instability Anatomic reconstruction Anterior cruciate ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Posterolateral corner Medial collateral ligament 

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Copyright information

© European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert F. LaPrade
    • 1
    • 2
  • Samuel G. Moulton
    • 2
  • Marco Nitri
    • 3
  • Werner Mueller
    • 4
  • Lars Engebretsen
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.The Steadman ClinicVailUSA
  2. 2.Steadman Philippon Research InstituteVailUSA
  3. 3.2nd Orthopaedics and Traumatologic ClinicRizzoli Orthopaedic InstituteBolognaItaly
  4. 4.Kantonsspital Baselland-BruderholzBaselSwitzerland
  5. 5.University of OsloOsloNorway
  6. 6.Oslo Sports Trauma Research CenterOsloNorway

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