Advertisement

Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports—Part I: Systematic review of risk factors in male athletes

  • Eduard Alentorn-GeliEmail author
  • Jurdan Mendiguchía
  • Kristian Samuelsson
  • Volker Musahl
  • Jon Karlsson
  • Ramon Cugat
  • Gregory D. Myer
Sports Medicine

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to report a comprehensive literature review on the risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in male athletes.

Methods

All abstracts were read and articles of potential interest were reviewed in detail to determine on inclusion status for systematic review. Information regarding risk factors for ACL injuries in male athletes was extracted from all included studies in systematic fashion and classified as environmental, anatomical, hormonal, neuromuscular, or biomechanical. Data extraction involved general characteristics of the included studies (type of study, characteristics of the sample, type of sport), methodological aspects (for quality assessment), and the principal results for each type of risk factor.

Results

The principal findings of this systematic review related to the risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes are: (1) most of the evidence is related to environmental and anatomical risk factors; (2) dry weather conditions may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes; (3) artificial turf may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes; (4) higher posterior tibial slope of the lateral tibial plateau may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes.

Conclusion

Anterior cruciate ligament injury in male athletes likely has a multi-factorial aetiology. There is a lack of evidence regarding neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes. Future research in male populations is warranted to provide adequate prevention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of this serious injury in these populations.

Level of evidence

Systematic review on level I–IV studies, Level IV.

Keywords

Prevention ACL injury Risk factors Male athletes 

References

  1. 1.
    Aaltonen S, Karjalainen H, Heinonen A, Parkkari J, Kujala UM (2007) Prevention of sports injuries: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 167:1585–1592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmad CS, Clark AM, Heilmann N, Schoeb JS, Gardner TR, Levine WN (2006) Effect of gender and maturity on quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio and anterior cruciate ligament laxity. Am J Sports Med 34:370–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alentorn-Geli E, Myer GD, Silvers HJ, Samitier G, Romero D, Lazaro-Haro C, Cugat R (2009) Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 1: mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 17:705–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alentorn-Geli E, Myer GD, Silvers HJ, Samitier G, Romero D, Lazaro-Haro C, Cugat R (2009) Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 2: a review of prevention programs aimed to modify risk factors and to reduce injury rates. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 17:859–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Araujo PH, Ahlden M, Hoshino Y, Muller B, Moloney G, Fu FH, Musahl V (2012) Comparison of three non-invasive quantitative measurement systems for the pivot shift test. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20:692–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arendt E, Dick R (1995) Knee injury patterns among men and women in collegiate basketball and soccer. NCAA data and review of literature. Am J Sports Med 23:694–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Besier TF, Lloyd DG, Ackland TR (2003) Muscle activation strategies at the knee during running and cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:119–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Besier TF, Lloyd DG, Ackland TR, Cochrane JL (2001) Anticipatory effects on knee joint loading during running and cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1176–1181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Besier TF, Lloyd DG, Cochrane JL, Ackland TR (2001) External loading of the knee joint during running and cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1168–1175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bjordal JM, Arnly F, Hannestad B, Strand T (1997) Epidemiology of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer. Am J Sports Med 25:341–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bradley JP, Klimkiewicz JJ, Rytel MJ, Powell JW (2002) Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the National Football League: epidemiology and current treatment trends among team physicians. Arthroscopy 18:502–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brandon ML, Haynes PT, Bonamo JR, Flynn MI, Barrett GR, Sherman MF (2006) The association between posterior-inferior tibial slope and anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency. Arthroscopy 22:894–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brent J, Myer GD, Ford KR, Paterno M, Hewett T (2012) The effect of sex and age on isokinetic hip abduction torques. J Sport Rehabil 22:41–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chappell JD, Herman DC, Knight BS, Kirkendall DT, Garrett WE, Yu B (2005) Effect of fatigue on knee kinetics and kinematics in stop-jump tasks. Am J Sports Med 33:1022–1029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cheng T, Zhang GY, Zhang XL (2012) Does computer navigation system really improve early clinical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Knee 19:73–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cross MJ, Gibbs NJ, Bryant GJ (1989) An analysis of the sidestep cutting manoeuvre. Am J Sports Med 17:363–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dai B, Herman D, Liu C, Garrett WE Jr, Yu B (2012) Prevention of ACL injury, Part I: injury characteristics, risk factors, and loading mechanism. Res Sports Med 20:180–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dai B, Herman D, Liu H, Garrett WE Jr, Yu B (2012) Prevention of ACL injury, part II: effects of ACL injury prevention programs on neuromuscular risk factors and injury rate. Res Sports Med 20:198–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dejour D, Ntagiopoulos PG, Saggin PR, Panisset JC (2013) The diagnostic value of clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and instrumented laxity in the differentiation of complete versus partial anterior cruciate ligament tears. Arthroscopy 29:491–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dempsey AR, Elliott BC, Munro BJ, Steele JR, Lloyd DG (2012) Whole body kinematics and knee moments that occur during an overhead catch and landing task in sport. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 27:466–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dempsey AR, Lloyd DG, Elliott BC, Steele JR, Munro BJ, Russo KA (2007) The effect of technique change on knee loads during sidestep cutting. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:1765–1773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dragoo JL, Braun HJ, Durham JL, Chen MR, Harris AH (2012) Incidence and risk factors for injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament in National Collegiate Athletic Association football: data from the 2004–2005 through 2008–2009 National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System. Am J Sports Med 40:990–995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dragoo JL, Braun HJ, Harris AH (2012) The effect of playing surface on the incidence of ACL injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association American Football. Knee 20:191–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Emond CE, Woelber EB, Kurd SK, Ciccotti MG, Cohen SB (2011) A comparison of the results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bioabsorbable versus metal interference screws: a meta-analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 93:572–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Escamilla RF, Fleisig GS, Zheng N, Lander JE, Barrentine SW, Andrews JR, Bergemann BW, Moorman CT 3rd (2001) Effects of technique variations on knee biomechanics during the squat and leg press. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1552–1566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Evans KN, Kilcoyne KG, Dickens JF, Rue JP, Giuliani J, Gwinn D, Wilckens JH (2012) Predisposing risk factors for non-contact ACL injuries in military subjects. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20:1554–1559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Everhart JS, Flanigan DC, Simon RA, Chaudhari AM (2010) Association of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury with presence and thickness of a bony ridge on the anteromedial aspect of the femoral intercondylar notch. Am J Sports Med 38:1667–1673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ford KR, Myer GD, Hewett TE (2010) Longitudinal effects of maturation on lower extremity joint stiffness in adolescent athletes. Am J Sports Med 38:1829–1837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ford KR, Shapiro R, Myer GD, Van Den Bogert AJ, Hewett TE (2010) Longitudinal sex differences during landing in knee abduction in young athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42:1923–1931PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fuller CW, Clarke L, Molloy MG (2010) Risk of injury associated with rugby union played on artificial turf. J Sports Sci 28:563–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fuller CW, Dick RW, Coriette J, Schmalz R (2007) Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 1: match injuries. Br J Sports Med 41(Suppl 1):i20–i26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fuller CW, Dick RW, Coriette J, Schmalz R (2007) Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 2: training injuries. Br J Sports Med 41(Suppl 1):i27–i32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gianotti SM, Marshall SW, Hume PA, Bunt L (2009) Incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury and other knee ligament injuries: a national population-based study. J Sci Med Sport 12:622–627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gomes JL, de Castro JV, Becker R (2008) Decreased hip range of motion and noncontact injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament. Arthroscopy 24:1034–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gottlob CA, Baker CL (2000) Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: socioeconomic issues and cost effectiveness. Am J Orthop (BelleMead NJ) 29:472–476Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gottlob CA, Baker CL, Pellissier JM, Colvin L (1999) Cost effectiveness of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in young adults. Clin Orthop Relat Res 367:272–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Granan LP, Bahr R, Steindal K, Furnes O, Engebretsen L (2008) Development of a national cruciate ligament surgery registry: the Norwegian national knee ligament registry. Am J Sports Med 36:308–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Griffin LY, Albohm MJ, Arendt EA, Bahr R, Beynnon BD, DeMaio M, Dick RW, Engebretsen L, Garrett WE Jr, Hannafin JA, Hewett TE, Huston LJ, Ireland ML, Johnson RJ, Lephart S, Mandelbaum BR, Mann BJ, Marks PH, Marshall SW, Myklebust G, Noyes FR, Powers C, Shields C Jr, Shultz SJ, Silvers H, Slauterbeck J, Taylor DC, Teitz CC, Wojtys EM, Yu B (2006) Understanding and preventing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: a review of the Hunt Valley II Meeting, January 2005. Am J Sports Med 34:1512–1532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hashemi J, Chandrashekar N, Mansouri H, Gill B, Slauterbeck JR, Schutt RC, Dabezies E, Beynnon BD (2010) Shallow medial tibial plateau and steep medial and lateral tibial slopes. New risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Am J Sports Med 38:54–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hewett TE, Ford KR, Myer GD (2006) Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: part 2, a meta-analysis of neuromuscular interventions aimed at injury prevention. Am J Sports Med 34:490–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hewett TE, Myer GD (2011) The mechanistic connection between the trunk, hip, knee, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 39:161–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR (2006) Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: part 1, mechanisms and risk factors. Am J Sports Med 34:299–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR, Heidt RS Jr, Colosimo AJ, McLean SG, Van Den Bogert AJ, Paterno MV, Succop P (2005) Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med 33:492–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hohmann E, Bryant A, Reaburn P, Tetsworth K (2011) Is there a correlation between posterior tibial slope and non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 19(Suppl 1):S109–S114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hoshino Y, Araujo P, Ahlden M, Samuelsson K, Muller B, Hofbauer M, Wolf MR, Irrgang JJ, Fu FH, Musahl V (2013) Quantitative evaluation of the pivot shift by image analysis using the iPad. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 21:975–980Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hudek R, Fuchs B, Regenfelder F, Koch PP (2011) Is noncontact ACL injury associated with the posterior tibial and meniscal slope? Clin Orthop Relat Res 469:2377–2384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Huston LJ, Wojtys EM (1996) Neuromuscular performance characteristics in elite female athletes. Am J Sports Med 24:427–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lambson RB, Barnhill BS, Higgins RW (1996) Football cleat design and its effect on anterior cruciate ligament injuries. A three-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med 24:155–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lohmander LS, Englund PM, Dahl LL, Roos EM (2007) The long-term consequence of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus injuries: osteoarthritis. Am J Sports Med 35:1756–1769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    McLean SG, Myers PT, Neal RJ, Walters MR (1998) A quantitative analysis of knee joint kinematics during the sidestep cutting maneuver. Implications for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Bull Hosp Jt Dis 57:30–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Meyers MC, Barnhill BS (2004) Incidence, causes, and severity of high school football injuries on FieldTurf versus natural grass. A 5-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med 32:1626–1638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Group P (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med 18:264–269Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mohtadi NG, Chan DS, Dainty KN, Whelan DB (2011) Patellar tendon versus hamstring tendon autograft for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD005960Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mountcastle SB, Posner M, Kragh JF Jr, Taylor DC (2007) Gender differences in anterior cruciate ligament injury vary with activity: epidemiology of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in a young, athletic population. Am J Sports Med 35:1635–1642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Myer GD, Martin L Jr, Ford KR, Paterno MV, Schmitt LC, Heidt RS Jr, Colosimo A, Hewett TE (2012) No association of time from surgery with functional deficits in athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: evidence for objective return-to-sport criteria. Am J Sports Med 40:2256–2263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Myer GD, Schmitt LC, Brent JL, Ford KR, Barber Foss KD, Scherer BJ, Heidt RS, Divine JG, Hewett TE (2011) Utilization of modified NFL combine testing to identify functional deficits in athletes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 41:377–387PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Olsen OE, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Holme I, Bahr R (2003) Relationship between floor type and risk of ACL injury in team handball. Scand J Med Sci Sports 13:299–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Orchard J (2001) The AFL penetrometer study: work in progress. J Sci Med Sport 4:220–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Orchard J, Seward H, McGivern J, Hood S (1999) Rainfall, evaporation and the risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in the Australian Football League. Med J Aust 170:304–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Orchard J, Seward H, McGivern J, Hood S (2001) Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury in Australian footballers. Am J Sports Med 29:196–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Orchard JW, Chivers I, Aldous D, Bennell K, Seward H (2005) Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than Bermuda grass. Br J Sports Med 39:704–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Orchard JW, Powell JW (2003) Risk of knee and ankle sprains under various weather conditions in American football. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1118–1123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Philippon M, Dewing C, Briggs K, Steadman JR (2012) Decreased femoral head–neck offset: a possible risk factor for ACL injury. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 20:2585–2589PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Portes EM, Portes LA, Botelho VG, Souza Pinto S (2007) Isokinetic torque peak and hamstrings/quadriceps ratios in endurance athletes with anterior cruciate ligament laxity. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 62:127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Posthumus M, Collins M, September AV, Schwellnus MP (2011) The intrinsic risk factors for ACL ruptures: an evidence-based review. Phys Sportsmed 39:62–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Powell JW, Schootman M (1992) A multivariate risk analysis of selected playing surfaces in the National Football League: 1980 to 1989. An epidemiologic study of knee injuries. Am J Sports Med 20:686–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Prodromos CC, Han Y, Rogowski J, Joyce B, Shi K (2007) A meta-analysis of the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears as a function of gender, sport, and a knee injury-reduction regimen. Arthroscopy 23:1320–1325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Renstrom P, Ljungqvist A, Arendt E, Beynnon B, Fukubayashi T, Garrett W, Georgoulis T, Hewett TE, Johnson R, Krosshaug T, Mandelbaum B, Micheli L, Myklebust G, Roos E, Roos H, Schamasch P, Shultz S, Werner S, Wojtys E, Engebretsen L (2008) Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement. Br J Sports Med 42:394–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Scranton PE Jr, Whitesel JP, Powell JW, Dormer SG, Heidt RS Jr, Losse G, Cawley PW (1997) A review of selected noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the National Football League. Foot Ankle Int 18:772–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Scranton PE Jr, Whitesel JP, Powell JW, Dormer SG, Heidt RS Jr, Losse G, Cawley PW (1997) A review of selected noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the National Football League. Foot Ankle Int 18:772–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sheehan FT, Sipprell WH 3rd, Boden BP (2012) Dynamic sagittal plane trunk control during anterior cruciate ligament injury. Am J Sports Med 40:1068–1074PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Smith TO, Davies L, Hing CB (2010) Early versus delayed surgery for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 18:304–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Souryal TO, Freeman TR (1993) Intercondylar notch size and anterior cruciate ligament injuries in athletes. A prospective study. Am J Sports Med 21:535–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Stijak L, Herzog RF, Schai P (2008) Is there an influence of the tibial slope of the lateral condyle on the ACL lesion? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 16:112–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stoffel KK, Nicholls RL, Winata AR, Dempsey AR, Boyle JJ, Lloyd DG (2010) Effect of ankle taping on knee and ankle joint biomechanics in sporting tasks. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42:2089–2097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Teitz CC, Lind BK, Sacks BM (1997) Symmetry of the femoral notch width index. Am J Sports Med 25:687–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tiamklang T, Sumanont S, Foocharoen T, Laopaiboon M (2012) Double-bundle versus single-bundle reconstruction for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 11:CD008413Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Todd MS, Lalliss S, Garcia S, DeBerardino TM, Cameron KL (2010) The relationship between posterior tibial slope and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Am J Sports Med 38:63–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Uhorchak JM, Scoville CR, Williams GN, Arciero RA, St Pierre P, Taylor DC (2003) Risk factors associated with noncontact injury of the anterior cruciate ligament: a prospective four-year evaluation of 859 West Point cadets. Am J Sports Med 31:831–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Walden M, Hagglund M, Orchard J, Kristenson K, Ekstrand J (2013) Regional differences in injury incidence in European professional football. Scand J Med Sci Sports 23:424–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wojtys EM, Huston LJ, Schock HJ, Boylan JP, Ashton-Miller JA (2003) Gender differences in muscular protection of the knee in torsion in size-matched athletes. J Bone Joint Surg Am 85:782–789Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Woodford-Rogers B, Cyphert L, Denegar CR (1994) Risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury in high school and college athletes. J Athl Train 29:343–346PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Yeow CH, Lee PV, Goh JC (2010) Sagittal knee joint kinematics and energetics in response to different landing heights and techniques. Knee 17:127–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Yeow CH, Lee PV, Goh JC (2011) An investigation of lower extremity energy dissipation strategies during single-leg and double-leg landing based on sagittal and frontal plane biomechanics. Hum Mov Sci 30:624–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zazulak BT, Hewett TE, Reeves NP, Goldberg B, Cholewicki J (2007) Deficits in neuromuscular control of the trunk predict knee injury risk: a prospective biomechanical-epidemiologic study. Am J Sports Med 35:1123–1130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zazulak BT, Hewett TE, Reeves NP, Goldberg B, Cholewicki J (2007) The effects of core proprioception on knee injury: a prospective biomechanical-epidemiological study. Am J Sports Med 35:368–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduard Alentorn-Geli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jurdan Mendiguchía
    • 2
  • Kristian Samuelsson
    • 3
  • Volker Musahl
    • 4
  • Jon Karlsson
    • 3
  • Ramon Cugat
    • 5
    • 6
  • Gregory D. Myer
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital del Mar—Parc de Salut MarUniversitat Autonoma de Barcelona and Universitat Pompeu FabraBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Physical TherapyZentrum Rehab and Performance CenterBarañainSpain
  3. 3.Department of OrthopaedicsSahlgrenska University HospitalMölndalSweden
  4. 4.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA
  5. 5.García-Cugat FoundationBarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.Mutualidad de FutbolistasFederación Española de Fútbol—Delegación CataluñaBarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.Division of Sports MedicineCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  8. 8.Departments of Pediatrics and Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  9. 9.The Micheli Center for Sports Injury PreventionBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations