Far anteromedial portal technique for posterolateral femoral tunnel drilling in anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cadaveric study
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To identify the relationship between knee flexion angle and femoral tunnel length, as well as the exit points of guidewires, when using a far anteromedial portal technique for posterolateral femoral tunnel drilling in double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
Using the far anteromedial portal technique in 8 cadaveric knees, femoral tunnel drilling for the posterolateral bundle was performed at 3 knee flexion angles: 90°, 110° and 130°. We measured the femoral tunnel length and the distances from each guidewire to the closest relevant structures.
The mean tunnel length at 90° knee flexion (25.8 ± 1.8 mm) was significantly shorter than the length at 110° and 130° knee flexion (32.1 ± 2.6 and 33.1 ± 2.5 mm, respectively). The average distance between the exit point of the guidewire and the posterior articular cartilage of the lateral femoral condyle was the shortest at 90° knee flexion (3.3 ± 2.2 mm). The distance between the guidewire and the centre of the origin of the lateral collateral ligament was the shortest at 130° knee flexion (8.0 ± 1.8 mm). The guidewires penetrated the origin of the lateral gastrocnemius tendon in 2 cases at 110° knee flexion and in 1 case each at 90° and 130° knee flexion.
When using the far anteromedial portal technique, more than 110° knee flexion is desirable to achieve ideal femoral tunnel length and avoid articular cartilage injury. In addition, the risk of damage to the origin of the lateral collateral ligament increases when the knee flexion angle increases to 130°. A knee flexion angle between 110° and 120° was recommended when using the far anteromedial portal technique.
KeywordsAnterior cruciate ligament Knee Far anteromedial portal technique Femoral tunnel length Double-bundle ACL reconstruction
The authors wish to thank Professor Hirohiko Aoyama, Ph.D., from the Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, for allowing us to perform this cadaveric study in his department and for providing us with the facilities to conduct the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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