Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

, Volume 21, Issue 7, pp 1577–1586

Consideration of religious sentiments while selecting a biological product for knee arthroscopy

Sports Medicine

DOI: 10.1007/s00167-012-2292-z

Cite this article as:
Goyal, D., Goyal, A. & Brittberg, M. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc (2013) 21: 1577. doi:10.1007/s00167-012-2292-z



There is an increasing use of various synthetic and biological products in orthopaedics. The use of a biological product can be a major area of concern for patients of various cultures/religions. The purpose of this work is to study various restrictions in different faiths and their compatibility with available products focused on cartilage repair.


A systematic search in several databases, CINAHL, EMBASE, Global health, PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane collaboration, was performed to find out various religious beliefs of some major religions regarding the use of animal products. Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Jewish and Buddhist faiths were studied to find out whether animal-derived surgical implants are permitted. Major religious scholars were asked about their opinions, and guidelines related to human/religious ethics were evaluated. A market survey was carried out to find out biological contents of various products and their compatibility.


Jews and Muslims have religious restrictions for porcine products, while Hindus reject bovine products. Vegetarian Hindus reject usage of any animal product. Most Christians do not have any restrictions except those who follow vegetarian dietary regulations. Though there is no prohibition for the use of animal products in Buddhism, a code of non-violence to animals is being followed. However, difference of opinion exists about interpretation of these dietary guidelines for surgical usage amongst various scholars.


Products of biological origin have a definite restriction for various religions, with few exceptions. Surgeons should know the source of the product and should be aware of the basic requirements of the patient’s faith. Patient should be informed about the source of the product and alternative if available, and an informed consent may be considered.

Level of evidence

Type of study, Level V.


Animal origin Cartilage products Meniscus implants Religion Restriction Culture Hindu Jews Muslim Christian Human ethics Xenografts 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Saumya Orthocare, Centre for Advanced Surgeries of the Knee JointAhmedabadIndia
  2. 2.Smt NHL Municipal Medical CollegeAhmedabadIndia
  3. 3.Cartilage Research Unit, Region Halland Orthopaedics, Hallands Hospital KungsbackaUniversity of GothenburgKungsbackaSweden

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