Documentation of strength training for research purposes after ACL reconstruction
The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate strength training protocol documentation during rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The aim was further to present recommendations concerning what components (i.e. methods, principles and training variables) could be considered vital to document when it comes to strength training for research purposes after ACL reconstruction.
A search of the PUBMED/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SportDiscus databases was made of relevant literature relating to strength training after ACL reconstruction. The database search was based on relevant medical subject headings terms (strength/resistance/weight training, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction/rehabilitation). The literature was reviewed regarding the way methods and variables were documented in strength training protocols during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction in peer-reviewed original prospective articles.
The systematic literature search identified 139 citations published between January 1983 and May 2012. Six studies contained a strength training programme-part of the rehabilitation protocol after ACL reconstruction that met the inclusion criteria. Basic information (i.e. training frequency, intensity, volume, progression or the duration of the training period) regarding the strength training protocols used during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction was not documented in full in four of the studies.
The results clearly indicate the need of a more standardised and detailed way of documenting strength training for research purposes after ACL reconstruction in order to increase the value of future studies on this subject. This review gives recommendations on strength training protocol documentation after ACL reconstruction to facilitate this goal.
Level of evidence
KeywordsStrength training protocol Muscle strength Systematic review Physiotherapy ACL rehabilitation Reconstruction
- 2.Ageberg E, Roos HP, Silbernagel KG, Thomeé R, Roos EM (2009) Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 17:162–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Beynnon BD, Uh BS, Johnson RJ, Abate JA, Nichols CE, Fleming BC, Poole AR, Roos H (2005) Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of programs administered over 2 different time intervals. Am J Sports Med 33:347–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.De Lorme TL (1946) Heavy resistance exercises. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 27:607–630Google Scholar
- 27.Kristensen J, Franklyn-Miller A (2011) Resistance training in musculoskeletal rehabilitation: a literature review. Br J Sports Med. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.079376
- 28.Lautamies R, Harilainen A, Kettunen J, Sandelin J, Kujala UM (2008) Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and knee function 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison between bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon autografts. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 16:1009–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Mikkelsen C, Werner S, Eriksson E (2000) Closed kinetic chain alone compared to combined open and closed kinetic chain exercises for quadriceps strengthening after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with respect to return to sports: a prospective matched follow-up study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 8:337–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Øiestad BE, Holm I, Aune AK, Gunderson R, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Fosdahl MA, Risberg MA (2010) Knee function and prevalence of knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective study with 10 to 15 years of follow-up. Am J Sports Med 38:2201–2210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar