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Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

, Volume 20, Issue 9, pp 1720–1729 | Cite as

Biomechanical techniques to evaluate tibial rotation. A systematic review

  • Mak-Ham Lam
  • Daniel Tik-Pui Fong
  • Patrick Shu-Hang Yung
  • Kai-Ming Chan
Knee

Abstract

Purpose

This article systematically reviewed the biomechanical techniques to quantify tibial rotation, for an overview of how to choose a suitable technique for specific clinical application.

Methods

A systematic search was conducted and finally 110 articles were included in this study. The articles were categorized by the conditions of how the knee was examined: external load application, physical examination and dynamic task.

Results

The results showed that two-thirds of the included studies measured tibial rotation under external load application, of which over 80% of the experiments employed a cadaveric model. The common techniques used included direct displacement measurement, motion sensor, optical tracking system and universal force moment sensor. Intra-operative navigation system was used to document tibial rotation when the knee was examined by clinical tests. For dynamic assessment of knee rotational stability, motion analysis with skin reflective markers was frequently used although this technique is less accurate due to the skin movement when compared with radiographic measurement.

Conclusion

This study reports various biomechanical measurement techniques to quantify tibial rotation in the literatures. To choose a suitable measurement technique for a specific clinical application, it is suggested to quantify the effectiveness of a new designed surgical technique by using a cadaveric model before applying to living human subjects for intra-operative evaluation or long-time functional stability assessment. Attention should also be paid on the study’s purpose, whether to employ a cadaveric model and the way of stress applied to the knee.

Level of evidence

IV.

Keywords

Kinematics Methodology Stability Laxity 

Notes

Conflict of interest

There are no potential conflicts of interest the authors may have that are relevant to the contents of this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mak-Ham Lam
    • 1
  • Daniel Tik-Pui Fong
    • 1
  • Patrick Shu-Hang Yung
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kai-Ming Chan
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Faculty of MedicineThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.The Hong Kong Jockey Club Sports Medicine and Health Sciences Centre, Faculty of MedicineThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina

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