Advertisement

Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

, Volume 17, Issue 12, pp 1437–1442 | Cite as

The injury profile of Karate World Championships: new rules, less injuries

  • Rafael ArriazaEmail author
  • Manuel Leyes
  • Hamid Zaeimkohan
  • Alvaro Arriaza
Knee

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to document the injury rate in high-level modern competitive karate after a change of competition rules was implemented in the year 2000, and to compare it with the injury rate found before the rules were changed. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from 2,762 matches in three consecutive World Karate Championships (representing 7,425 min of active fighting) was performed, and compared with the results from 2,837 matches from the three last World Karate Championships (representing 7,631 min of active fighting) held before the change of competition rules. In total, 497 injuries were recorded, with an incidence of 0.180 injuries per match or 6.7 per 100 min of active fighting. There were 1,901 male category fights (in which 383 injuries were recorded), and 861 female category fights (in which 114 injuries were recorded). The global injury incidence was almost double with the old rules compared to the one with the new rules [OR 1.99, 95% CI (1.76–2.26); p < 0.00001]. In male category, the risk of injury was higher before the rules were changed [OR 1.81, 95% CI (1.56–2.09); p < 0.00001], and also in female category [OR 2.71; 95% CI (2.64–2.80); p < 0.00001]. The rate of severe injuries was not different before and after the change of rules. The implementation of the new competition rules in competitive karate has been associated with a significant reduction in injury rate, making competition safer for athletes.

Keywords

Karate Martial arts Injuries Trauma Prevention Competition rules 

References

  1. 1.
    Arriaza R, Leyes M (2005) Injury profile in competitive karate: prospective analysis of three consecutive World Karate Championships. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 13:603–607CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Birrer RB (1996) Trauma epidemiology in the martial arts. The results of an eighteen-year international survey. Am J Sports Med 24:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Birrrer RB, Halbrook SP (1988) Martial arts injuries: the results of a five-year national survey. Am J Sports Med 16:408–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Critchley GR, Mannion S, Meredith C (1999) Injury rates in Shotokan karate. Br J Sports Med 33:174–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johannsen HV, Norregaard FO (1986) Karate injuries in relation to the qualifications of participants and competition success. Ugerskr Laeger 148:1786–1790Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kujala UM, Taimela S, Antti-Poika I, Orava S, Tuominen R, Myllynen P (1995) Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo and karate: analysis of national registry data. BMJ 311:1465–1468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Macan J, Bundalo-Vrbanac D, Romic G (2006) Effects of the new karate rules on the incidence and distribution of injuries. Br J Sports Med 40:326–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McLatchie GR (1981) Karate and karate injuries. Br J Sports Med 15:84–86CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Muller-Rath R, Bolte S, Petersen P, Mommsen U (2000) Injury profile in modern competitive karate. Analysis of 1999 World Karate Championship Games in Bochum. Sportverletz Sportsschaden 14:20–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pieter W, Zemper ED (1999) Head and neck injuries in young taekwondo athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 39:147–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stricevic MV, Patel MR, Okazaki T, Swain BK (1983) Karate: Historical perspective and injuries sustained in national and international tournament competitions. Am J Sports Med 11:320–324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Trojanowski D (1987) Injuries during karate competitions. Identification of risk groups. Lakartidningen 84:1858–1860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tuominen R (1995) Injuries in national karate competitions in Finland. Scand J Med Sci Sports 5:44–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wilkerson LA (1997) Martial arts injuries. J Am Osteopath Assoc 97:221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    World Karate federation. Kumite rules. http://www.wkf.net/html/karaterulesenglish-eng.html
  16. 16.
    Zetaruk MN, Violan MA, Zurakowski D, Micheli LJ (2000) Karate injuries in children and adolescents. Accid Anal Prev 32:421–425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zetaruk MN, Violan MA, Zurakowski D, Micheli LJ (2005) Injuries in martial arts: a comparison of five styles. Br J Sports Med 39:29–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael Arriaza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Manuel Leyes
    • 2
  • Hamid Zaeimkohan
    • 3
  • Alvaro Arriaza
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUSP Hospital Santa TeresaLa CoruñaSpain
  2. 2.Hospital FREMAPMajadahonda, MadridSpain
  3. 3.TehranIran
  4. 4.Santiago de Compostela Medical SchoolSantiago de Compostela, La CorunaSpain

Personalised recommendations