Anatomy of the posterior cruciate ligament and the meniscofemoral ligaments

  • A. A. AmisEmail author
  • C. M. Gupte
  • A. M. J. Bull
  • A. Edwards


This paper describes the anatomy of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs). The fibres of the PCL may be split into two functional bundles; the anterolateral bundle (ALB) and the posteromedial bundle (PMB), relating to their femoral attachments. The tibial attachment is relatively compact, with the ALB anterior to the PLB. These bundles are not isometric: the ALB is tightest in the mid-arc of knee flexion, the PMB is tight at both extension and deep flexion. At least one MFL is present in 93% of knees. On the femur, the anterior MFL attaches distal to the PCL, close to the articular cartilage; the posterior MFL attaches proximal to the PCL. They both attach distally to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus. Their slanting orientation allows the MFLs to resist tibial posterior drawer.


Posterior cruciate ligament Meniscofemoral ligament Anatomy Fibre bundles Length changes 



The work of C.M.G. was supported by the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh fellowship and the Smith and Nephew Foundation. A.M.J.B. is supported by the Arthritis Research Campaign. A.E. is supported by the West London Board for Postgraduate Medical and Dental Education.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Amis
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • C. M. Gupte
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • A. M. J. Bull
    • 3
  • A. Edwards
    • 1
  1. 1.Biomechanics Section, Department of Mechanical EngineeringImperial College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Musculoskeletal SurgeryImperial College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of BioengineeringImperial College LondonLondonUK

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