Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 51–63 | Cite as

Density–velocity equations with bulk modulus for computational hydro-acoustics

  • Po-Hsien Lin
  • Yung-Yu Chen
  • S.-T. John Yu
Original Article


This paper reports a new set of model equations for Computational Hydro Acoustics (CHA). The governing equations include the continuity and the momentum equations. The definition of bulk modulus is used to relate density with pressure. For 3D flow fields, there are four equations with density and velocity components as the unknowns. The inviscid equations are proved to be hyperbolic because an arbitrary linear combination of the three Jacobian matrices is diagonalizable and has a real spectrum. The left and right eigenvector matrices are explicitly derived. Moreover, an analytical form of the Riemann invariants are derived. The model equations are indeed suitable for modeling wave propagation in low-speed, nearly incompressible air and water flows. To demonstrate the capability of the new formulation, we use the CESE method to solve the 2D equations for aeolian tones generated by air flows passing a circular cylinder at Re = 89,000, 46,000, and 22,000. Numerical results compare well with previously published data. By simply changing the value of the bulk modulus, the same code is then used to calculate three cases of water flows passing a cylinder at Re = 89,000, 67,000, and 44,000.


Computational hydro-acoustics (CHA) Bulk modulus Hyperbolicity 


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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