Modelling shock waves in composite materials using generalised orthotropic pressure

  • M. K. Mohd NorEmail author
  • C. S. Ho
  • N. Ma’at
  • M. F. Kamarulzaman
Original Article


Excellent mechanical properties of composite materials have numerous engineering applications, especially in aerospace structures. The main characteristics are due to their strength-to-weight ratio and low cost of manufacturing. Therefore, the understanding and an ability to predict the formation and propagation of shock waves in such materials are important. This paper investigates the ability of the constitutive model generalised for orthotropic materials to predict a complex elastoplastic deformation behaviour which involves very high pressures and shockwaves in composite materials. The formulation consists of a stress tensor formulated based on the combination between Mandel stress tensor and a new pressure generalised for orthotropic materials. The formulation is further combined with a shock equation of state (EOS) to define a new orthotropic EOS. The implementation of this newly orthotropic EOS in the Laboratory (LLNL)-DYNA3D code of UTHM’s version is presented in this paper for potential implementation in the other hydrocode. The formulation is then tested against plate impact test data of carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites along the through-thickness and longitudinal directions including the results obtained by Vignjevic’s model (Vignjevic et al. in J Appl Phys 104(4):044904, 2008). A good agreement is obtained in each test.


Shock wave propagation Plate impact test Carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites Orthotropic pressure 



Authors wish to convey sincere gratitude to Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) for providing the financial means during the preparation to complete this work under Geran Penyelidikan Pascasiswazah (GPPS), Vot U746 and UTHM Contract Research Grant, Vot H276.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crashworthiness and Collisions Research Group (COLORED) Mechanical Failure Prevention and Reliability Research Centre (MPROVE), Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn MalaysiaParit RajaMalaysia

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