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Accretion disks in luminous young stellar objects

Abstract

An observational review is provided of the properties of accretion disks around young stars. It concerns the primordial disks of intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects in embedded and optically revealed phases. The properties were derived from spatially resolved observations and, therefore, predominantly obtained with interferometric means, either in the radio/(sub)millimeter or in the optical/infrared wavelength regions. We make summaries and comparisons of the physical properties, kinematics, and dynamics of these circumstellar structures and delineate trends where possible. Amongst others, we report on a quadratic trend of mass accretion rates with mass from T Tauri stars to the highest mass young stellar objects and on the systematic difference in mass infall and accretion rates.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    From here on, we will use assume OI to stand for the technique that performs real-time, square-law interferometry with separate telescopes and which covers both the optical and IR wavelength regimes. We will use the term radio/mm interferometry to indicate the heterodyne technique employing coherent amplification and product correlators (usually in the sub-mm, mm and cm wavelength regimes).

  2. 2.

    We will use the term (proto)star when referring to high-mass young stellar objects to highlight the fact that most of them have already reached the zero age main sequence (ZAMS) but are still actively accreting.

  3. 3.

    The boundary wavelength between the techniques is \(10\,\upmu \)m.

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Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the following people for their input in discussion on accretion in young stars: J. Fairlamb, C. Manara, M. Dunham, H. Arce, T. Alonso-Albi, K. Shiro. We thank L. Carbonaro for his help on the graphics. We thank T. van Kempen for providing us the NGC 2071 maps and P. Boley for preparing the figure of V 921 Sco. We would like to thank especially D. Galli, R. Cesaroni, and I. Mendigutía for reading a preliminary version of the manuscript. M. T. Beltrán thanks the ESO Chile Scientific Visitor Programme. This research has made extensive use of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System.

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Beltrán, M.T., de Wit, W.J. Accretion disks in luminous young stellar objects. Astron Astrophys Rev 24, 6 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00159-015-0089-z

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Keywords

  • Accretion: accretion disks
  • Techniques: high angular resolution
  • Techniques: interferometric
  • Stars: formation