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Spontaneous magnetic reconnection

Collisionless reconnection and its potential astrophysical relevance
  • R. A. Treumann
  • W. Baumjohann
Review Article

Abstract

The present review concerns the relevance of collisionless reconnection in the astrophysical context. Emphasis is put on recent developments in theory obtained from collisionless numerical simulations in two and three dimensions. It is stressed that magnetic reconnection is a universal process of particular importance under collisionless conditions, when both collisional and anomalous dissipation are irrelevant. While collisional (resistive) reconnection is a slow, diffusive process, collisionless reconnection is spontaneous. On any astrophysical time scale, it is explosive. It sets on when electric current widths become comparable to the leptonic inertial length in the so-called lepton (electron/positron) “diffusion region”, where leptons de-magnetise. Here, the magnetic field contacts its oppositely directed partner and annihilates. Spontaneous reconnection breaks the original magnetic symmetry, violently releases the stored free energy of the electric current, and causes plasma heating and particle acceleration. Ultimately, the released energy is provided by mechanical motion of either the two colliding magnetised plasmas that generate the current sheet or the internal turbulence cascading down to lepton-scale current filaments. Spontaneous reconnection in such extended current sheets that separate two colliding plasmas results in the generation of many reconnection sites (tearing modes) distributed over the current surface, each consisting of lepton exhausts and jets which are separated by plasmoids. Volume-filling factors of reconnection sites are estimated to be as large as \({<}10^{-5}\) per current sheet. Lepton currents inside exhausts may be strong enough to excite Buneman and, for large thermal pressure anisotropy, also Weibel instabilities. They bifurcate and break off into many small-scale current filaments and magnetic flux ropes exhibiting turbulent magnetic power spectra of very flat power-law shape \(W_b\propto k^{-\alpha }\) in wavenumber k with power becoming as low as \(\alpha \approx 2\). Spontaneous reconnection generates small-scale turbulence. Imposed external turbulence tends to temporarily increase the reconnection rate. Reconnecting ultra-relativistic current sheets decay into large numbers of magnetic flux ropes composed of chains of plasmoids and lepton exhausts. They form highly structured current surfaces, “current carpets”. By including synchrotron radiation losses, one favours tearing-mode reconnection over the drift-kink deformation of the current sheet. Lepton acceleration occurs in the reconnection-electric field in multiple encounters with the exhausts and plasmoids. This is a Fermi-like process. It results in power-law tails on the lepton energy distribution. This effect becomes pronounced in ultra-relativistic reconnection where it yields extremely hard lepton power-law energy spectra approaching \(F(\gamma )\propto \gamma ^{-1}\), with \(\gamma \) the lepton energy. The synchrotron radiation limit becomes substantially exceeded. Relativistic reconnection is a probable generator of current and magnetic turbulence, and a mechanism that produces high-energy radiation. It is also identified as the ultimate dissipation mechanism of the mechanical energy in collisionless magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascades via lepton-inertial-scale turbulent current filaments. In this case, the volume-filling factor is large. Magnetic turbulence causes strong plasma heating of the entire turbulent volume and violent acceleration via spontaneous lepton-scale reconnection. This may lead to high-energy particle populations filling the whole volume. In this case, it causes non-thermal radiation spectra that span the entire interval from radio waves to gamma rays.

Keywords

Collisionless reconnection Magnetic turbulence Relativistic reconnection Acceleration Lepton exhaust and jets Turbulent current sheets Power law distributions 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to the editors of The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review for the invitation to this recollection. RT thanks Martin Huber for many valuable discussions and, in particular, for his continuous encouragement in the writing. Andrea Fischer and Irmela Schweizer, ISSI librarians, helped accessing the literature. We thank Saliba F. Saliba, ISSI-technical administrator, for technical support. The interest of the ISSI directorate in this research is also acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geophysics Section, Department of Geophysics and Environmental SciencesLudwig-Maximilians-University MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of Physics and AstronomyDartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA
  3. 3.Space Research InstituteAustrian Academy of SciencesGrazAustria

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