Radio emission from supernova remnants

  • Gloria DubnerEmail author
  • Elsa Giacani
Review Article


The explosion of a supernova releases almost instantaneously about 10\(^{51}\) ergs of mechanic energy, changing irreversibly the physical and chemical properties of large regions in the galaxies. The stellar ejecta, the nebula resulting from the powerful shock waves, and sometimes a compact stellar remnant, constitute a supernova remnant (SNR). They can radiate their energy across the whole electromagnetic spectrum, but the great majority are radio sources. Almost 70 years after the first detection of radio emission coming from an SNR, great progress has been achieved in the comprehension of their physical characteristics and evolution. We review the present knowledge of different aspects of radio remnants, focusing on sources of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds, where the SNRs can be spatially resolved. We present a brief overview of theoretical background, analyze morphology and polarization properties, and review and critically discuss different methods applied to determine the radio spectrum and distances. The consequences of the interaction between the SNR shocks and the surrounding medium are examined, including the question of whether SNRs can trigger the formation of new stars. Cases of multispectral comparison are presented. A section is devoted to reviewing recent results of radio SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds, with particular emphasis on the radio properties of SN 1987A, an ideal laboratory to investigate dynamical evolution of an SNR in near real time. The review concludes with a summary of issues on radio SNRs that deserve further study, and analysis of the prospects for future research with the latest-generation radio telescopes.


ISM: supernova remnants Radio continuum: ISM  Radiation mechanisms: non-thermal ISM: cosmic rays 



We are very grateful to our colleagues Namir Kassim, David Green, and Gabriela Castelletti for the critical reading of this manuscript and useful comments. We thank CONICET (Argentina) for support through the Grant PIP 0736/11 and to ANPCyT (Argentina) through Grant PICT 0571/11. We have used images provided by C. Brogan, F. Giordano, L. Ksenofontov, C.-Y. Ng, S. Pineault, W. Reich, S. Reynolds, and E. Reynoso with permission of the authors, whom we thank.


  1. Abdo AA, Ackermann M, Ajello M et al (2009) ApJ 706:L1ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdo AA, Ackermann M, Ajello M et al (2010a) Science 327:1103ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdo AA, Ackermann M, Ajello M et al (2010b) ApJ 722:1303ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Abdo AA, Ajello M, Allafort A et al (2013) ApJS 208:17ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Acciari VA, Aliu E, Arlen T et al (2009) ApJ 698:L133ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Acero F, Ballet J, Decourchelle A et al (2009) A&A 505:157ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ackermann M, Ajello M, Allafort A et al (2013) Science 339:807ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aharonian F, Akhperjanian AG, Bazer-Bachi AR et al (2006) ApJ 636:777ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aharonian F, Akhperjanian AG, Bazer-Bachi AR et al (2008) A&A 481:401ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aharonian FA, Atoyan AM (1996) A&A 309:917ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Aizu K, Tabara H (1967) Prog Theor Phys 37:296ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alfvén H, Herlofson N (1950) Phys Rev 78:616ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Amy SW, Ball L (1993) ApJ 411:761ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Anderl S, Gusdorf A, Güsten R (2014) A&A 569:A81ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Araya M (2013) MNRAS 434:2202ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Arbutina B, Urošević D, Stanković M, Tešić L (2004) MNRAS 350:346ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Arendt RG, Dwek E, Blair WP et al (2010) ApJ 725:585ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Auchettl K, Slane P, Castro D (2014) ApJ 783:32ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Baade W, Minkowski R (1954) ApJ 119:206ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Badenes C, Maoz D, Draine BT (2010) MNRAS 407:1301ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ball L, Crawford DF, Hunstead RW, Klamer I, McIntyre VJ (2001) ApJ 549:599ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ballet J (2006) Adv Space Res 37:1902ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bartel N, Bietenholz M-F, Rupen M-P, Conway J-E, Beasley A-J, Sramek R-A, Romney J-D, Titus M-A, Graham D-A, Altunin V-I, Jones DL, Rius A, Venturi T, Umana G, Francis R-L, McCall M-L, Richer MG, Stevenson C-C, Weiler K-W, van Dyk S-D, Panagia N, Cannon W-H, Popelar J, Davis R-J (1994) The shape, expansion rate and distance of supernova 1993J from VLBI measurements. Nature 368:610–613. doi: 10.1038/368610a0 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Beck R (2012) in EAS Publications Series, Vol. 56, EAS Publications Series, ed. M. A. de Avillez, 51–59Google Scholar
  25. Bell AR (1978a) MNRAS 182:147ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bell AR (1978b) MNRAS 182:443ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bell AR, Schure KM, Reville B (2011) MNRAS 418:1208ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Beresnyak A, Jones TW, Lazarian A (2009) ApJ 707:1541ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Berezhko EG, Ksenofontov LT, Völk HJ (2012) ApJ 759:12ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Berezhko EG, Völk HJ (2000) Astropart Phys 14:201ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bhattacharjee P, Chaudhury S, Kundu S (2014) ApJ 785:63ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bietenholz MF, Bartel N, Milisavljevic D et al (2010a) MNRAS 409:1594ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bietenholz MF, Bartel N, Rupen MP (2010b) ApJ 712:1057ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bietenholz M-F, Yuan Y, Buehler R, Lobanov A-P, Blandford R (2015) The variability of the Crab Nebula in radio: no radio counterpart to gamma-ray flares. MNRAS 446:205–216. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu2025 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Blandford R, Eichler D (1987) Phys Rep 154:1ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Blandford RD, Ostriker JP (1978) ApJ 221:L29ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bolatto AD, Wolfire M, Leroy AK (2013) ARA&A 51:207ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Borkowski KJ, Reynolds SP, Green DA et al (2010) ApJ 724:L161ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Borkowski KJ, Reynolds SP, Hwang U et al (2013) ApJ 771:L9ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bozzetto LM, Filipović MD, Crawford EJ et al (2013) MNRAS 432:2177ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Brentjens MA, de Bruyn AG (2005) A&A 441:1217ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Brogan CL, Frail DA, Goss WM, Troland TH (2000) ApJ 537:875ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Brogan CL, Lazio TJ, Kassim NE, Dyer KK (2005) AJ 130:148ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Brogan CL, Gelfand JD, Gaensler BM, Kassim NE, Lazio TJW (2006) ApJ 639:L25ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Brun F, de Naurois M, Hofmann W, et al. (2011), in SF2A-2011: Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics, ed. Alecian, G, Belkacem K, Samadi R, Valls-Gabaud D, 545–548Google Scholar
  46. Burbidge GR (1959) ApJ 129:849ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Burn BJ (1966) MNRAS 133:67ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Burrows CJ, Krist J, Hester JJ et al (1995) ApJ 452:680ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Butt Y (2009) Nature 460:701ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Case GL, Bhattacharya D (1998) ApJ 504:761ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cassam-Chenaï G, Decourchelle A, Ballet J et al (2004) A&A 427:199ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Castelletti G, Dubner G, Golap K, Goss WM (2006) A&A 459:535ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Castelletti G, Dubner G, Brogan C, Kassim NE (2007) A&A 471:537ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Castelletti G, Dubner G, Clarke T, Kassim NE (2011a) A&A 534:A21ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Castelletti G, Giacani E, Dubner G et al (2011b) A&A 536:A98ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Castro D, Slane P, Carlton A, Figueroa-Feliciano E (2013) ApJ 774:36ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Castro D, Slane P (2010) ApJ 717:372ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Chen Y, Jiang B (2013) Scientia Sinica Physica Mechanica Astronomica 43:1Google Scholar
  59. Chevalier RA (1974) ApJ 188:501ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Chevalier RA (1982a) ApJ 259:L85ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Chevalier RA (1982b) ApJ 258:790ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Chevalier RA (1998) ApJ 499:810ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Clark DH, Caswell JL (1976) MNRAS 174:267ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Claussen MJ, Frail DA, Goss WM, Gaume RA (1997) ApJ 489:143ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Combi JA, Albacete-Colombo JF, Martí J (2008) A&A 488:L25ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Combi JA, Albacete Colombo JF, Sánchez-Ayaso E et al (2010) A&A 523:A76ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cornett RH, Chin G, Knapp GR (1977) A&A 54:889ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Cox DP (2005) ARA&A 43:337ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Crotts APS, Heathcote SR (2000) ApJ 528:426ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. DeLaney T, Koralesky B, Rudnick L, Dickel JR (2002) ApJ 580:914ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. DeLaney T, Kassim NE, Rudnick L, Perley RA (2014) ApJ 785:7ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Desai KM, Chu Y-H, Gruendl RA et al (2010) AJ 140:584ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Dickel JR, Dickel HR, Crutcher RM (1976) PASP 88:840ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Dickel JR, Milne DK, Junkes N, Klein U (1993) A&A 275:265ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Dickel JR, Milne DK (1995) AJ 109:200ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Dickel JR, Milne DK (1998) AJ 115:1057ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Downes D (1971) AJ 76:305ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Drury LO, Downes TP (2012) MNRAS 427:2308ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Dubner GM, Giacani EB, Goss WM, Winkler PF (1994) AJ 108:207ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Dubner GM, Holdaway M, Goss WM, Mirabel IF (1998) AJ 116:1842ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Dubner GM, Velázquez PF, Goss WM, Holdaway MA (2000) AJ 120:1933ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Dubner GM, Gaensler BM, Giacani EB, Goss WM, Green AJ (2002) AJ 123:337ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Dubner G, Giacani E, Reynoso E, Parón S (2004) A&A 426:201ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Dubner G, Loiseau N, Rodríguez-Pascual P et al (2013) A&A 555:A9ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Dubner GM, Arnal EM (1988) A&A 75:363ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. Dumas G, Vaupré S, Ceccarelli C et al (2014) ApJ 786:L24ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Dwarkadas VV (2005) ApJ 630:892ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ellison DC, Bykov AM (2011) ApJ 731:87ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ellison DC, Reynolds SP (1991) ApJ 382:242ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Feinstein F, Fiasson A, Gallant Y et al (2009) In: Bastieri D, Rando R (eds) American Institute of Physics Conference Series, vol 1112, pp 54–62Google Scholar
  91. Fermi E (1949) Phys Rev 75:1169ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ferrand G, Safi-Harb S (2012) Adv Space Res 49:1313ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Frail DA, Giacani EB, Goss WM, Dubner G (1996a) ApJ 464:L165ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Frail DA, Goss WM, Reynoso EM et al (1996b) AJ 111:1651ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Frail DA, Mitchell GF (1998) ApJ 508:690ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Fukui Y, Sano H, Sato J et al (2012) ApJ 746:82ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Fürst E, Reich W (2004) In: Uyaniker B, Reich W, Wielebinski R (eds) The magnetized interstellar medium, pp 141–146Google Scholar
  98. Gabici S, Aharonian FA, Casanova S (2009) MNRAS 396:1629ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Gaensler BM (1998) ApJ 493:781ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Gaensler BM, Brazier KTS, Manchester RN, Johnston S, Green AJ (1999) MNRAS 305:724ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gaensler BM, Arons J, Kaspi VM et al (2002) ApJ 569:878ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Gaensler BM, Slane PO (2006) ARA&A 44:17ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Gaensler BM, Wallace BJ (2003) ApJ 594:326ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Gardner FF, Whiteoak JB (1966) ARA&A 4:245ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Gelfand JD, Castro D, Slane PO et al (2013) ApJ 777:148ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ghavamian P, Long KS, Blair WP et al (2012) ApJ 750:39ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Giacani EB, Dubner GM, Kassim NE et al (1997) AJ 113:1379ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Giacani EB, Dubner GM, Green AJ, Goss WM, Gaensler BM (2000) AJ 119:281ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Giacani E, Smith MJS, Dubner G et al (2009) A&A 507:841ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Giacani E, Smith MJS, Dubner G, Loiseau N (2011) A&A 531:A138ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ginzburg VL, Syrovatskii SI (1965) ARA&A 3:297ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Giordano F, Naumann-Godo M, Ballet J et al (2012) ApJ 744:L2ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Giuliani A, Cardillo M, Tavani M et al (2011) ApJ 742:L30ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Goss WM, Robinson BJ (1968) Astrophys Lett 2:81ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. Green DA (1984) MNRAS 209:449ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Green DA (1991) PASP 103:209ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Green AJ, Frail DA, Goss WM, Otrupcek R (1997) AJ 114:2058ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Green DA, Reynolds SP, Borkowski KJ et al (2008) MNRAS 387:L54ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Green DA (2014) Bull Astron Soc India 42:47ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. Grondin M-H, Sasaki M, Haberl F et al (2012) A&A 539:A15ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Han JL, Gao XY, Sun XH et al (2014) In: Ray A, McCray RA (eds) IAU symposium, vol 296, pp 202–209Google Scholar
  122. Hanabata Y, Katagiri H, Hewitt JW et al (2014) ApJ 786:145ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hansen BMS, Phinney ES (1997) MNRAS 291:569ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Harvey-Smith L, Gaensler BM, Kothes R et al (2010) ApJ 712:1157ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Harwit M (1988) Astrophysical concepts. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Hayakawa T, Torii K, Enokiya R, Amano T, Fukui Y (2012) PASJ 64:8ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. Heald G, Braun R, Edmonds R (2009) A&A 503:409ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Heiles C (1984) ApJS 55:585ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Hewitt JW, Yusef-Zadeh F, Wardle M (2008) ApJ 683:189ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Huang Y-L, Thaddeus P (1986) ApJ 309:804ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hughes JP, Hayashi I, Helfand D et al (1995) ApJ 444:L81ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Hwang U, Laming JM, Badenes C et al (2004) ApJ 615:L117ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Hwang U, Flanagan KA, Petre R (2005) ApJ 635:355ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ilovaisky SA, Lequeux J (1972) A&A 18:169ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. Indebetouw R, Matsuura M, Dwek E et al (2014) ApJ 782:L2ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Jansky KG (1933) Pop Astron 41:548ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. Jiang B, Chen Y, Wang J et al (2010) ApJ 712:1147ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Jones TW, Rudnick L, Jun B-I et al (1998) PASP 110:125ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Jones TW (2011) J Astrophys Astron 32:427ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Jun B-I, Norman ML, Stone JM (1995) ApJ 453:332ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Jun B-I, Norman ML (1996) ApJ 465:800ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Kassim NE (1989) ApJS 71:799ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Kassim NE, Hertz P, van Dyk SD, Weiler KW (1994) ApJ 427:L95ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Kassim NE, Perley RA, Dwarakanath KS, Erickson WC (1995) ApJ 455:L59ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Katz-Stone DM, Kassim NE, Lazio TJW, O’Donnell R (2000) ApJ 529:453ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Katz-Stone DM, Rudnick L (1997) ApJ 479:258ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Kavanagh PJ, Sasaki M, Points SD et al (2013) A&A 549:A99ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Kiepenheuer KO (1950) Phys Rev 79:738ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Kilpatrick CD, Bieging JH, Rieke GH (2014) ApJ 796:144ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Koo B-C, Rho J, Reach WT, Jung J, Mangum JG (2001) ApJ 552:175ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Koo B-C, McKee CF, Lee J-J et al (2008) ApJ 673:L147ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Koo B-C, Kang J-H (2004) MNRAS 349:983ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Koo B-C, Moon D-S (1997) ApJ 485:263ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Koralesky B, Frail DA, Goss WM, Claussen MJ, Green AJ (1998) AJ 116:1323ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Kothes R (2003) A&A 408:187ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Krassilchtchikov A, Bykov A, Kargaltsev O et al (2014) In: COSPAR meeting, 40th COSPAR scientific assembly, vol 40, Held 2–10 August 2014, Moscow, Russia, Abstract E1.16-10-14., 1643Google Scholar
  157. Lacey CK, Lazio TJW, Kassim NE et al (2001) ApJ 559:954ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Lakićević M, Zanardo G, van Loon JT et al (2012) A&A 541:L2ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Landecker TL, Pineault S, Routledge D, Vaneldik JF (1982) ApJ 261:L41ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Landecker TL, Pineault S, Routledge D, Vaneldik JF (1989) MNRAS 237:277ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Landecker TL, Routledge D, Reynolds SP et al (1999) ApJ 527:866ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Landecker TL (2012) Space Sci Rev 166:263ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Lazendic JS, Wardle M, Burton MG et al (2004) MNRAS 354:393ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Leahy DA, Roger RS (1998) ApJ 505:784ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Leahy DA, Tian WW (2008) A&A 480:L25ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Lee J-J, Koo B-C, Yun MS et al (2008) AJ 135:796ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Lequeux J (2005) The interstellar medium. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  168. Li H, Chen Y (2012) MNRAS 421:935ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Lopez LA, Ramirez-Ruiz E, Badenes C et al (2009) ApJ 706:L106ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Lopez LA, Ramirez-Ruiz E, Huppenkothen D, Badenes C, Pooley DA (2011) ApJ 732:114ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Maggi P, Haberl F, Bozzetto LM et al (2012) A&A 546:A109ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Maggi P, Haberl F, Kavanagh PJ et al (2014) A&A 561:A76ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Malkov MA, O’C Drury L (2001) Rep Prog Phys 64:429ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Manchester RN (1987) A&A 171:205ADSGoogle Scholar
  175. Manchester RN, Mar DP, Lyne AG, Kaspi VM, Johnston S (1993a) ApJ 403:L29ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Manchester RN, Staveley-Smith L, Kesteven MJ (1993b) ApJ 411:756ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Manchester RN, Gaensler BM, Wheaton VC et al (2002) PASA 19:207ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Manchester RN, Gaensler BM, Staveley-Smith L, Kesteven MJ, Tzioumis AK (2005) ApJ 628:L131ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Maoz D, Mannucci F, Nelemans G (2014) ARA&A 52:107ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Marcaide JM, Alberdi A, Ros E et al (1995) Nature 373:44ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Mathewson DS, Ford VL, Dopita MA et al (1983) ApJS 51:345ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Mathewson DS, Healey JR (1963) Nature 199:681ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Mayer CH, McCullough TP, Sloanaker RM (1957) ApJ 126:468ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Mayer CH, Hollinger JP (1968) ApJ 151:53ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. McClure-Griffiths NM, Dickey JM, Gaensler BM, Green AJ (2002) ApJ 578:176ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. McKee CF, Ostriker JP (1977) ApJ 218:148ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Melioli C, de Gouveia Dal Pino EM, de La Reza R, Raga A (2006) MNRAS 373:811ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Miceli M, Acero F, Dubner G et al (2014) ApJ 782:L33ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Milne DK (1968) Aust J Phys 21:201ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Milne DK (1970) Aust J Phys 23:425ADSGoogle Scholar
  191. Milne DK (1980) A&A 81:293ADSGoogle Scholar
  192. Milne DK (1987) Aust J Phys 40:771ADSGoogle Scholar
  193. Milne DK, Dickel JR (1975) Aust J Phys 28:209ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Moffet AT (1975) In: Sandage A, Sandage M, Kristian J (eds) Strong nonthermal radio emission from galaxies: galaxies and the universe. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 211Google Scholar
  195. Moriguchi Y, Yamaguchi N, Onishi T, Mizuno A, Fukui Y (2001) PASJ 53:1025ADSGoogle Scholar
  196. Moriguchi Y, Tamura K, Tawara Y et al (2005) ApJ 631:947ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Ng C-Y, Potter TM, Staveley-Smith L et al (2011) ApJ 728:L15ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Ng C-Y, Zanardo G, Potter TM et al (2013) ApJ 777:131ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Odenwald SF, Shivanandan K (1985) ApJ 292:460ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Ojeda-May P, Kurtz SE, Rodríguez LF, Arthur SJ, Velázquez P (2002) Rev Mexicana Astron Astrofis 38:111ADSGoogle Scholar
  201. Opik EJ (1953) Ir Astron J 2:219ADSGoogle Scholar
  202. Ostrowski M (1999) A&A 345:256ADSGoogle Scholar
  203. Pacholczyk AG (1970) Radio astrophysics. Nonthermal processes in galactic and extragalactic sources. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  204. Parizot E, Marcowith A, Ballet J, Gallant YA (2006) A&A 453:387ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Park S, Roming PWA, Hughes JP et al (2002) ApJ 564:L39ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Park S, Hughes JP, Slane PO et al (2004) ApJ 602:L33ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Park S, Hughes JP, Slane PO et al (2007) ApJ 670:L121ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Park G, Koo B-C, Gibson SJ et al (2013) ApJ 777:14ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Paron SA, Reynoso EM, Purcell C, Dubner GM, Green A (2006) PASA 23:69ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Paron S, Dubner G, Reynoso E, Rubio M (2008) A&A 480:439ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Paron S, Ortega ME, Rubio M, Dubner G (2009) A&A 498:445ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Paron S, Ortega ME, Petriella A et al (2012) A&A 547:A60ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Patnaude DJ, Fesen RA (2007) AJ 133:147ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Pavlovic MZ, Dobardzic A, Vukotic B, Urosevic D (2014) Serbian Astron J 189:25ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Pedlar A, Muxlow TWB, Garrett MA et al (1999) MNRAS 307:761ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Peters CL, Lopez LA, Ramirez-Ruiz E, Stassun KG, Figueroa-Feliciano E (2013) ApJ 771:L38ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Petre R, Kriss GA, Winkler PF, Canizares CR (1982) ApJ 258:22ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Petruk O, Dubner G, Castelletti G et al (2009) MNRAS 393:1034ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Phillips JP, Ramos-Larios G, Perez-Grana JA (2009) MNRAS 397:1215ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Pineault S, Landecker TL, Routledge D (1987) ApJ 315:580ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Potter TM, Staveley-Smith L, Ng C-Y et al (2009) ApJ 705:261ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Poveda A, Woltjer L (1968) AJ 73:65ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Reach WT, Rho J, Jarrett TH (2005) ApJ 618:297ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Reach WT, Rho J (1999) ApJ 511:836ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Reber G (1944) ApJ 100:279ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Reich W (2006) ArXiv Astrophysics e-printsGoogle Scholar
  227. Reichardt I, de Oña-Wilhelmi E, Rico J, Yang R (2012) A&A 546:A21ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Reynolds SP (2008) ARA&A 46:89ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Reynolds SP, Borkowski KJ, Green DA et al (2008) ApJ 680:L41ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Reynolds SP, Borkowski KJ, Green DA et al (2009) ApJ 695:L149ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Reynolds SP (2011) Ap&SS 336:257ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Reynolds SP, Gaensler BM, Bocchino F (2012) Space Sci Rev 166:231ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Reynolds SP, Ellison DC (1992) ApJ 399:L75ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Reynolds SP, Gilmore DM (1986) AJ 92:1138ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Reynolds SP, Gilmore DM (1993) AJ 106:272ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Reynoso EM, Dubner GM, Goss WM, Arnal EM (1995) AJ 110:318ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Reynoso EM, Velázquez PF, Dubner GM, Goss WM (1999) AJ 117:1827ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Reynoso EM, Hughes JP, Moffett DA (2013) AJ 145:104ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Rho J, Petre R (1998) ApJ 503:L167ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Rohlfs K (1990) Tools of radio astronomy. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  241. Rohlfs K, Wilson TL (1996) Tools of radio astronomy. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Routledge D, Dewdney PE, Landecker TL, Vaneldik JF (1991) A&A 247:529ADSGoogle Scholar
  243. Ryle M, Smith FG (1948) Nature 162:462ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Sashida T, Oka T, Tanaka K et al (2013) ApJ 774:10ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Sato F (1974) PASJ 26:459ADSGoogle Scholar
  246. Sazonov VN (1973) Soviet Ast 16:774ADSGoogle Scholar
  247. Schure KM, Bell AR, O’C Drury L, Bykov AM (2012) Space Sci Rev 173:491ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Sedov LI (1959) Similarity and dimensional methods in mechanics. CRC Press, Boca RatonzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  249. Seta M, Hasegawa T, Dame TM et al (1998) ApJ 505:286ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Seta M, Hasegawa T, Sakamoto S et al (2004) AJ 127:1098ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Shklovsky IS (1960a) Soviet Ast 4:243ADSGoogle Scholar
  252. Shklovsky IS (1960b) Soviet Ast 4:355ADSGoogle Scholar
  253. Shklovsky JS (1978) Stars, their birth, life and death. Izdatel’stvo Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  254. Slane P, Bykov A, Ellison DC, Dubner G, Castro D (2015) Space Sci Rev 188:187ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Smartt SJ (2009) ARA&A 47:63ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Staveley-Smith L, Manchester RN, Kesteven MJ et al (1992) Nature 355:147ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Staveley-Smith L, Gaensler BM, Manchester RN et al (2007) In: Immler S, Weiler K, McCray R (eds) American Institute of Physics Conference Series, Supernova 1987A: 20 years after: supernovae and gamma-ray bursters, vol 937, pp 96–101Google Scholar
  258. Storey MC, Manchester RN (1987) Nature 329:421ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Su Y, Fang M, Yang J, Zhou P, Chen Y (2014) ApJ 788:122ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Suad LA, Caiafa CF, Arnal EM, Cichowolski S (2014) A&A 564:A116ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Taylor G (1950) R Soc Lond Proc Ser A 201:159ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Tian WW, Leahy DA (2008) MNRAS 391:L54ADSGoogle Scholar
  263. Tielens AGGM (2005) The physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Tingay S, Phillips C, Amy S et al (2009) In: 8th international e-VLBI workshop, 100Google Scholar
  265. Toledo-Roy JC, Velázquez PF, Esquivel A, Giacani E (2014) MNRAS 437:898ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Trimble V (1973) PASP 85:579ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Truelove JK, McKee CF (1999) ApJS 120:299ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Turtle AJ, Campbell-Wilson D, Bunton JD et al (1987) Nature 327:38ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Uchida KI, Morris M, Bally J, Pound M, Yusef-Zadeh F (1992) ApJ 398:128ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Uchiyama Y, Aharonian FA, Tanaka T, Takahashi T, Maeda Y (2007) Nature 449:576ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Urošević D (2014) Ap&SS 354:541ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. van der Laan H (1962) MNRAS 124:125ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Vanhala HAT, Cameron AGW (1998) ApJ 508:291ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Velázquez PF, Dubner GM, Goss WM, Green AJ (2002) AJ 124:2145ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Verschuur GL, Kellermann KI (1988) Galactic and extra-galactic radio astronomy. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Vink J (2012) A&Ar 20:49ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Völk HJ, Berezhko EG, Ksenofontov LT (2005) A&A 433:229ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Weiler KW, Sramek RA (1988) ARA&A 26:295ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Whiteoak JB, Gardner FF (1968) ApJ 154:807ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Wielebinski R (2012) J Astron Hist Herit 15:76ADSGoogle Scholar
  281. Williams JP, Blitz L, McKee CF (2000) Protostars and planets IV, 97Google Scholar
  282. Wilson TL (1970) Astrophys Lett 7:95ADSGoogle Scholar
  283. Winkler PF, Long KS (2006) AJ 132:360ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Woltjer L (1972) ARA&A 10:129ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Wood CA, Mufson SL, Dickel JR (2008) AJ 135:2358ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Wootten HA (1977) ApJ 216:440ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Wootten A (1978) Moon Planets 19:163ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Wu JHK, Wu EMH, Hui CY et al (2011) ApJ 740:L12ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Xu J-L, Wang J-J, Miller M (2011) ApJ 727:81ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Yamaguchi H, Badenes C, Petre R et al (2014) ApJ 785:L27ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Yusef-Zadeh F, Roberts DA, Goss WM, Frail DA, Green AJ (1996) ApJ 466:L25ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Zanardo G, Staveley-Smith L, Ball L et al (2010) ApJ 710:1515ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Zanardo G, Staveley-Smith L, Ng C-Y et al (2013) ApJ 767:98ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Zanardo G, Staveley-Smith L, Indebetouw R et al (2014) ApJ 796:82ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Zhang Z, Gao Y, Wang J (2010) Sci China Phys Mech Astron 53:1357Google Scholar
  296. Zhu H, Tian WW, Zuo P (2014) ApJ 793:95ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE)CONICET-UBABuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations