Cosmic X-ray surveys of distant active galaxies

The demographics, physics, and ecology of growing supermassive black holes
  • W. N. BrandtEmail author
  • D. M. Alexander
Review Paper


We review results from cosmic X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the past \(\approx 15\) years that have dramatically improved our understanding of growing supermassive black holes in the distant universe. First, we discuss the utility of such surveys for AGN investigations and the capabilities of the missions making these surveys, emphasizing Chandra, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR. Second, we briefly describe the main cosmic X-ray surveys, the essential roles of complementary multiwavelength data, and how AGNs are selected from these surveys. We then review key results from these surveys on the AGN population and its evolution (“demographics”), the physical processes operating in AGNs (“physics”), and the interactions between AGNs and their environments (“ecology”). We conclude by describing some significant unresolved questions and prospects for advancing the field.


Surveys Cosmology: observations Galaxies: active  Galaxies: nuclei Galaxies: Seyfert Galaxies: quasars  Galaxies: evolution Black hole physics 



We thank J.A. Aird, F.E. Bauer, P.N. Best, J.N. Bregman, M. Brightman, M. Brusa, A. Comastri, J.L. Donley, P. Gandhi, R. Gilli, C.M. Harrison, R.C. Hickox, L.C. Ho, D.D. Kocevski, J.H. Krolik, B.D. Lehmer, B. Luo, E. Lusso, A. Merloni, J.R. Mullaney, R.P. Norris, D.J. Rosario, A.E. Scott, O. Shemmer, Y. Shen, F. Stanley, M. Sun, E. Treister, J.R. Trump, Y. Ueda, C. Vignali, M. Volonteri, and Y.Q. Xue for feedback, helpful discussions, and sharing information. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from NASA ADP grant NNX10AC99G (WNB), Chandra X-ray Center grants AR3-14015X and G04-15130A (WNB), the Leverhulme Trust (DMA), and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (ST/I001573/1; DMA).


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Institute for Gravitation and the CosmosThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsDurham UniversityDurhamUK

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