Advertisement

Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization

, Volume 60, Issue 4, pp 1667–1685 | Cite as

Topology optimization of a pre-stiffened aircraft bulkhead

  • Braden T. WarwickEmail author
  • Chris K. Mechefske
  • Il Yong Kim
Industrial Application
  • 295 Downloads

Abstract

The bulkhead of an aft-fuselage twin-engine mounted aircraft is a pivotal structural component from a noise and vibrations perspective as it is the main transmission path for the engine-induced vibration to propagate into the passenger cabin. Despite this, there has yet to be a successful implementation of topology optimization (TO) on a pre-stiffened aircraft bulkhead. This work is the first to investigate TO on a pre-stiffened bulkhead with a frequency-based problem statement. The objective function was set to maximize the first eigenfrequency to maximize the stiffness to mass ratio of the bulkhead. Frequency constraints were implemented to eliminate the natural frequencies within range of the engine excitation frequency. A volume fraction constraint was set such that the mass of the solution was less than the mass of similar bulkhead stiffeners reported in the literature. The first successful implementation of topology optimization on a pre-stiffened aircraft bulkhead was obtained. Two designs satisfying the optimality criterion were generated, both of which were able to improve bulkhead structural integrity, reduce mass, and eliminate resonance from ± 10% of the engine excitation frequency. This work demonstrates that TO is a useful tool to help aerospace engineers improve the vibro-acoustic properties of the bulkhead without sacrificing mass or structural integrity. The methodology introduced in this work can be easily integrated into aircraft design, as it uses tools widely available in the aerospace industry.

Keywords

Topology optimization Aircraft bulkhead Modal analysis Frequency constraints 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Bombardier Aerospace for providing technical and financial support, as well as the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for providing financial support to this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Afonso S, Sienz J, Belblidia F (2005) Structural optimization strategies for simple and integrally stiffened plates and shells. Eng Comput 22(4):429–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altair (2018) Optistruct user guide 14.0.230Google Scholar
  3. Bendsøe MP, Kikuchi N (1988) Generating optimal topologies in structural design using a homogenization method. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 71(2):197–224MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bendsøe MP (2009) Topology optimization. Springer USGoogle Scholar
  5. Carrick C, Kim IY (2017) Topology and cost optimization applied to develop new designs for a monorail structure. In: World congress of structural and multidisciplinary optimisation. Springer, pp 1143–1155Google Scholar
  6. Cavazzuti M, Baldini A, Bertocchi E, Costi D, Torricelli E, Moruzzi P (2011) High performance automotive chassis design: a topology optimization based approach. Struct Multidiscip Optim 44(1):45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Di AR, Lipton R, Soto CA et al (1995) A new formulation of the problem of optimum reinforcement of Reissner-Mindlin plates. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 123(1-4):121–139MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Díaaz AR, Kikuchi N (1992) Solutions to shape and topology eigenvalue optimization problems using a homogenization method. Int J Numer Methods Eng 35(7):1487–1502MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dugré A, Vadean A et al (2016) Challenges of using topology optimization for the design of pressurized stiffened panels. Struct Multidiscip Optim 53(2):303–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Han S-W, Jung H-S (2011) Weight reducing of aluminum extrusion profiles of a railway-car body based on topology and size optimization. Trans Korean Soc Mech Eng A 35(2):213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hao P, Wang B, Tian K, Li G, Du K, Niu F (2016) Efficient optimization of cylindrical stiffened shells with reinforced cutouts by curvilinear stiffeners. AIAA J 54(1):1350–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hao P, Yuan X, Liu C, Wang B, Liu H, Li G, Niu F (2018) An integrated framework of exact modeling, isogeometric analysis and optimization for variable-stiffness composite panels. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 339:205–238MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jensen JS, Pedersen NL (2006) On maximal eigenfrequency separation in two-material structures: the 1D and 2D scalar cases. J Sound Vib 289(4-5):967–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jha S, Catherines J (1978a) Interior noise studies for general aviation types of aircraft, part i: field studies. J Sound Vib 58(3):375–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jha S, Catherines J (1978b) Interior noise studies for general aviation types of aircraft, part ii: laboratory studies. J Sound Vib 58:391–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kosaka I, Swan CC (1999) A symmetry reduction method for continuum structural topology optimization. Comput Struct 70(1):47–61MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Krog L, Tucker A, Rollema G (2002) Application of topology, sizing and shape optimization methods to optimal design of aircraft components. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Altair UK HyperWorks users conferenceGoogle Scholar
  18. Li C, Kim IY (2018) Multi-material topology optimization for automotive design problems. Proc Inst Mech Eng D: J Autom Eng 232(14):1950–1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu T, Zhu J-H, Zhang W-H, Zhao H, Kong J, Gao T (2019) Integrated layout and topology optimization design of multi-component systems under harmonic base acceleration excitations. Struct Multidiscip Optim 59(4):1–21MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  20. Luo J, Gea H (1998) A systematic topology optimization approach for optimal stiffener design. Struct Optim 16(4):280–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ma Z-D, Cheng H-C, Kikuchi N (1994) Structural design for obtaining desired eigenfrequencies by using the topology and shape optimization method. Comput Syst Eng 5(1):77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ma Z-D, Kikuchi N, Cheng H-C (1995) Topological design for vibrating structures. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 121(1-4):259–280MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pedersen NL (2000) Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization. Struct Multidiscip Optim 20(1):2–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Remouchamps A, Bruyneel M, Fleury C, Grihon S (2011) Application of a bi-level scheme including topology optimization to the design of an aircraft pylon. Struct Multidiscip Optim 44(6):739–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Richards L (1980) On the psychology of passenger comfort. Human factors in transport research edited by Dj Oborne, Ja Levis, 2Google Scholar
  26. Richards LG, Jacobson ID (1975) Ride quality evaluation 1. Questionnaire studies of airline passenger comfort. Ergonomics 18(2):129–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Richards LG, Jacobson ID (1977) Ride quality assessment III: questionnaire results of a second flight programme. Ergonomics 20(5):499–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rucks G (2008) Boeing optistruct usage: challenges of implementation and the emergence of a new design role. 67th International conference on mass properties, pp 298–310Google Scholar
  29. Štok B, Mihelič A (1996) Two-stage design optimization of shell structures. Struct Eng Rev 2(8):91–97Google Scholar
  30. Tcherniak D (2002) Topology optimization of resonating structures using simp method. Int J Numer Methods Eng 54(11):1605– 1622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Unruh JF, Scheidt DC, Pomerening DJ (1979) Engine-induced structural-borne noise in a general aviation aircraft. NASA-CR- 159099Google Scholar
  32. Wang D, Abdalla MM, Zhang W (2017) Buckling optimization design of curved stiffeners for grid-stiffened composite structures. Compos Struct 159:656–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Warwick BT, Mechefske CK, Kim IY (2017) Computational modal analysis of a twin-engine rear fuselage mounted aircraft support frame. In: ASME International design engineering technical conferences and computers and information in engineering conference. American Society of Mechanical EngineersGoogle Scholar
  34. Warwick BT, Mechefske CK, Kim IY (2018) Effect of stiffener configuration on bulkhead modal parameters. In: ASME international design engineering technical conferences and computers and information in engineering conference. American Society of Mechanical EngineersGoogle Scholar
  35. Warwick BT, Kim IY, Mechefske CK (2019a) Effect of pressurization on an aft-fuselage mounted twin-engine aircraft. J Vib Acoust (in press)Google Scholar
  36. Warwick BT, Kim IY, Mechefske CK (2019b) Substructuring verification of a rear fuselage mounted twin engine aircraft. J Aerosp Sci TechnolGoogle Scholar
  37. Wilby J (1996) Aircraft interior noise. J Sound Vib 190(3):545–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Woischwill C, Roper S, Li D, Carrick C, Kim I (2017) Large scale topology optimization utilizing element detection & refinement. In: Proceedings of the 26th CANCAMGoogle Scholar
  39. Wong J, Ryan L, Kim I (2018) Design optimization of aircraft landing gear assembly under dynamic loading. Struct Multidiscip Optim 57:1–19MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yang R, Chahande A (1995) Automotive applications of topology optimization. Struct Optim 9(3–4):245–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhu J, Zhang W, Beckers P (2009) Integrated layout design of multi-component system. Int J Numer Methods Eng 78(6):631–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhu J-H, Zhang W-H, Xia L (2016) Topology optimization in aircraft and aerospace structures design. Arch Comput Meth Eng 23(4):595–622MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Queen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations