Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization

, Volume 59, Issue 5, pp 1417–1438 | Cite as

A multi-level optimization technique based on fuel consumption and energy index in early-stage ship design

  • Hassan Zakerdoost
  • Hassan GhassemiEmail author
Research Paper


Reducing lifetime fuel consumption (LFC) and energy efficiency design index (EEDI) are two of the main concerns of shipping industry in recent years. This paper presents a multi-disciplinary and multi-level optimization scheme-based software (HPS-MOP2) to design a hull–propeller system simultaneously from the LFC and EEDI point of view in early-stage ship design. Calculations of the ship resistance and propeller performance are essential to optimize the ship hull–propeller system. Two numerical methods with variable fidelity, non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) geometry modelling technique and new version of multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) are three main parts of the proposed methodology. A bulk carrier propelled by a well-known propeller is used as a base model in three different study cases based on specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC) curves provided by the engine manufacturers Wartsila, MAN and Caterpillar. The presented results illustrate that the employed approach may achieve cost- and energy-efficient designs.


EEDI LFC Multi-point optimization Hull–propeller system Ship resistance Propeller efficiency 




Lifetime fuel consumption


Energy efficiency design index


Non-uniform rational basis spline


Boundary element method


Specific fuel oil consumption


Multi-objective optimization problem


Computational fluid dynamics


Multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition


Operating condition


Maximum continuous rating


Specific fuel consumption


Compromise solution


Initial solution


Hull–propeller system


Marine Environment Protection Committee


Latin hypercube sampling


Multi-disciplinary design optimization


Dynamical resource allocation



Length of ship


Draft of ship


Propeller number of blades


Expanded area ratio of propeller


Beaufort number


Propeller thrust


Thrust coefficient


Propeller open water efficiency


Propeller rotating speed


Atmosphere pressure


Keller’s coefficient (0 < K < 0.2)


Ship speed


Effective power


Wake fraction


Weight coefficient


Deadweight tonnage of ship

\( {\overline{R}}_{\mathrm{AW}} \)

Mean added resistance


Wave-making resistance


Calm water resistance


Quasi-propulsive coefficient


Breadth of ship


Propeller diameter


Pitch ratio of propeller


Froude number


Ship total resistance in waves


Propeller torque


Torque coefficient


Advance coefficient (J = VA/ND)


Advance velocity


Vapour pressure


Fluid density


Brake power


Hull efficiency


Thrust deduction factor


Ship displacement


Lightweight tonnage of ship


Energy spectrum of the sea


Viscous resistance


Transmission efficiency


Relative rotative efficiency



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Maritime EngineeringAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran

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