Advertisement

Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 291–310 | Cite as

An adaptive multi-step varying-domain topology optimization method for spot weld design of automotive structures

  • Shu Yang
  • Lei Yan
  • Chang QiEmail author
Industrial Application
  • 173 Downloads

Abstract

Spot welds are widely used to join metal stamping parts in the automotive industry. The number and layout of spot welds have direct impacts on both the mechanical performances of the vehicle and the manufacturing cost. The traditional methods including the 0–1 programming method, the size optimization method, the direct optimization method, and the single-step topology optimization (SSTO) method all have major drawbacks and are not suitable or efficient for spot weld layout design of an automotive structure. In this work, we propose a new method called multi-step varying-domain topology optimization (MVTO) method for spot weld design of automotive structures to balance structural performance and manufacturing cost. Based on a multi-step topology optimization framework with adaptive and varying design domains, the MVTO method can find a better layout design of the spot welds in a more efficient way compared to the existing methods. Limited engineering experiences are required and adverse human factors are eliminated in the spot weld design process with MVTO. To assist the application of MVTO method and to realize design automation, a new modeling approach is also developed to connect the continuous connection elements (CCEs) of the spot welds to the shell elements of the welded structure. Two case studies involving a simple single-hat beam and an automotive B-pillar show that the proposed MVTO method is reliable and effective for spot weld design of automotive structures. It has also been demonstrated that the MVTO method is superior to the direct optimization method and the SSTO method in terms of spot weld number reduction and welded structure performances, thus has a great potential for spot weld design of complicated automotive structures.

Keywords

Spot weld optimization Topology optimization SIMP Automotive structures 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. Zhen-Hua Lu of the State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, for his great assistance in conducting this research.

Funding information

This study received financial support from the State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy (no. KF1809), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 51475069, 51475070), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (no. DUT17GF212, DUT17LK42).

References

  1. Altair (2013) Altair OPTISTRUCT. In: HYPERWORKS 12.0. Altair Engineering, TroyGoogle Scholar
  2. Barthelemy J-FM, Haftka RT (1993) Approximation concepts for optimum structural design — a review. Structural Optimization 5:129–144.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01743349 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bendsøe MP (1989) Optimal shape design as a material distribution problem. Structural Optimization 1:193–202.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01650949 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bendsøe MP, Kikuchi N (1988) Generating optimal topologies in structural design using a homogenization method. Computer Methods Appl Mechanics Engineering 71:197–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-7825(88)90086-2
  5. Bendsøe MP, Sigmund O (2004) Topology optimization: theory, Method and Applications Handbook of Global Optimization.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-05086-6
  6. Bhatti QI, Ouisse M, Cogan S (2011) An adaptive optimization procedure for spot-welded structures. Comput Struct 89:1697–1711.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruc.2011.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen Y, Bi C, Zhang Y, Zhang M (2011) Application of topology optimization to a SRV BIW aiming at welding spot reduction. Automot Eng 33:733–737.  https://doi.org/10.19562/j.chinasae.qcgc.2011.08.018
  8. Chirehdast M, Jiang T (1996) Optimal design of spot-weld and adhesive bond pattern. SAE Paper 960812 In: International congress & exhibition, Detroit, 1 February 2006.  https://doi.org/10.4271/960812
  9. Choi W-H, Kim J-M, Park G-J (2016) Comparison study of some commercial structural optimization software systems. Struct Multidiscip Optim 54:685–699.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-016-1429-y MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cui A, Zhang SZ, Xu LJ, Liu HZ (2014) Topology optimization and robust analysis of welding spot layout for a heavy duty truck cab based on element strain energy density. Adv Mater Res 887-888:1284–1289.  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.887-888.1284 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Geissler G, Hahn T (2011) Process development for multi-displinary spot weld optimization with CAX-LOCO, LS-OPT and ANSA. In: 4th ANSA and μETA international conference, Thessaloniki, 1–3 June 2011. http://www.beta-cae.gr/events/c4pdf/2A_4_geissler.pdf
  12. Haftka RT, Adelman HM (1989) Recent developments in structural sensitivity analysis. Structural Optimization 1:137–151.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01637334 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haftka RT, Gürdal Z (1992) Elements of structural optimization (3-rd ed.). Dordrecht: Kluwer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-2550-5
  14. Long H, Hu Y, Jin X, Yu H, Zhu H (2016) An optimization procedure for spot-welded structures based on SIMP method. Comput Mater Sci 117:602–607.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2015.08.058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ouisse M, Cogan S (2010) Robust design of spot welds in automotive structures: a decision-making methodology. Mech Syst Signal Process 24:1172–1190.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2009.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pakalapati V, Katkar V, Babar R (2011) CAE based ‘multi objective optimization approach for spot weld connections layout’ in automotive structure. SAE Paper 2011–01-0794 In: SAE 2011 World Congress & Exhibition, Detroit, 12 April 2011.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-0794
  17. Park Y-S, Lee S-H, Park G-J (1995) A study of direct vs. approximation methods in structural optimization. Structural Optimization 10:64–66.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01743697 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Puchner K, Dannbauer H, Meise M (2006) Spot weld optimization regarding stiffness and fatigue using standard software. SAE Paper 2006-01-1247 In: SAE 2006 world congress & exhibition, Detroit, 3–6 April 2006.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-1247
  19. Ryberg A-B, Nilsson L (2015) Spot weld reduction methods for automotive structures. Struct Multidiscip Optim 53:923–934.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-015-1355-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Savic V, Xu S (2003) Fixed weld reduction method for optimal spot weld pattern design. SAE Paper 2003-01-1304 In: SAE 2003 world congress & exhibition, Detroit, 3–6 March 2003.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-1304
  21. Schmit LA, Farshi B (1973) Optimum laminate design for strength and stiffness. Int J Numer Meth Engrg 7:519–536.  https://doi.org/10.1002/nme.1620070410 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schmit LA, Miura H (1976) Approximation concepts for efficient structural synthesis. NASA CR 2552Google Scholar
  23. Sethian JA, Wiegmann A (2000) Structural boundary design via level set and immersed Interface methods. J Computational Physics 163:489–528.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jcph.2000.6581 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. Thomas H, Vanderplaats G, Shyy YK (1992) A study of move limit adjustment strategies in the approximation concepts approach to structural synthesis. Proc 4-th AIAA/USAF/NASA/OAI Symp on Multidisciplinary Design Optimization, Cleveland, OH, 1992.  https://doi.org/10.2514/6.1992-4750
  25. Thomas H, Zhou M, Schramm U (2002) Issues of commercial optimization software development. Struct Multidiscip Optim 23:97–110.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-002-0170-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang D, Zhang B, Chen J, Liu W, Sun Z, Wu Y (2009) A study on topology optimization for the cab BIW of a commercial vehicle aiming at welding spot reduction. Automotive Engineering 31:326–330.  https://doi.org/10.19562/j.chinasae.qcgc.2009.04.008
  27. Xie YM, Steven GP (1993) A simple evolutionary procedure for structural optimization. Computers Structures 49:885–896.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-7949(93)90035-C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yamaguchi A, Wakana G, Obayashi K, Okabe T, Müller-Bechtel M (2008) Spot-weld layout optimization for body stiffness by topology optimization. SAE Paper 2008-01-0878 In: SAE world congress & exhibition, Detroit, 14 April 2008.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-0878

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, School of Automotive EngineeringDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and EnergyTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations