Archive for Mathematical Logic

, Volume 46, Issue 7–8, pp 593–627

# The elementary computable functions over the real numbers: applying two new techniques

• Manuel L. Campagnolo
• Kerry Ojakian
Article

## Abstract

The basic motivation behind this work is to tie together various computational complexity classes, whether over different domains such as the naturals or the reals, or whether defined in different manners, via function algebras (Real Recursive Functions) or via Turing Machines (Computable Analysis). We provide general tools for investigating these issues, using two techniques we call approximation and lifting. We use these methods to obtain two main theorems. First, we provide an alternative proof of the result from Campagnolo et al. (J Complex 18:977–1000, 2002), which precisely relates the Kalmar elementary computable functions to a function algebra over the reals. Second, we build on that result to extend a result of Bournez and Hainry (Theor Comput Sci 348(2–3):130–147, 2005), which provided a function algebra for the $${\mathcal{C}}^2$$ real elementary computable functions; our result does not require the restriction to $${\mathcal{C}}^2$$ functions. In addition to the extension, we provide an alternative approach to the proof. Their proof involves simulating the operation of a Turing Machine using a function algebra. We avoid this simulation, using a technique we call lifting, which allows us to lift the classic result regarding the elementary computable functions to a result on the reals. The two new techniques bring a different perspective to these problems, and furthermore appear more easily applicable to other problems of this sort.

## Keywords

Computable analysis Real recursive functions Elementary computable

68Q15

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