Terrorism and the integration of Muslim immigrants
We study the effect that a series of Islamist terrorist attacks across Europe in 2004–2005 had on the integration of Muslim immigrants. Using unique panel data that oversamples immigrants in the Netherlands, we show that, shortly after the attacks, Muslim immigrants’ attitudes toward integration worsened significantly compared to those of non-Muslim immigrants, with no evidence of a negative trend in the attitudes of Muslims prior to the attacks. While, in particular, low-educated Muslims became more geographically segregated and unemployed after the attacks, high-educated Muslims were affected most negatively in terms of their perceived integration. This decline in perceived integration is associated with a higher intention to permanently re-migrate to the country of origin.
KeywordsTerrorism Integration Muslim immigrants
JEL ClassificationF22 J15 R23 Z13
We acknowledge the comments on earlier versions of our paper by two anonymous referees, Marion Collewet, Denis de Crombrugghe, Jan Feld, Stephen Machin, Alan Manning, Maria Paula Gerardino, Olivier Marie, Jeffrey Nugent, Jörn-Steffen Pischke, Nicolas Salamanca, and Maria Zumbuehl, as well as participants of the Economic Research Forum (ERF) 2013 conference in Kuwait, the 2013 “Migration: Global Development, New Frontiers” conference at UCL, the 16th IZA European Summer School in Labor Economics in Buch/Ammersee, Germany, the EALE, Conference in Ljubljana, Slovenia, and the CEP/LSE Labour Seminar in London School of Economics. The Netherlands Kinship Panel Study is funded by grant 480-10-009 from the Major Investments Fund of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) and by the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI), Utrecht University, the University of Amsterdam and Tilburg University.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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