# Parental time and working schedules

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## Abstract

This paper investigates the effects of working schedules and of other characteristics (including family composition) on the time devoted by mothers and fathers to different activities with children in Canadian households, by using 1992 and 1998 Canadian Time Use Surveys. Switching regression models and models with selection allow us to simultaneously model labour market participation, type of work schedules and allocation of parental time. Working time has a negative and very significant effect on parental time. Hours worked during the day or at night exert a similar effect on parental time, but the impact of hours worked in the evening is by far larger. Time worked in the evening mainly decreases leisure and social activities with children.

### Keywords

Parental time Switching regression models Working schedules### JEL Classification

C3 J13 J22## Notes

### Acknowledgements

We thank participants to the conference, especially Daniel Hallberg, for their helpful comments. We also thank David Margolis for helpful discussions on econometrics. We also thank the two anonymous referees whose comments greatly helped to improve our paper. All remaining errors are ours. Support for this study was provided by grants from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada (regular grant and strategic grant on Social Cohesion). The analysis is based on data collected by Statistics Canada, but does not represent the views of Statistics Canada. The detailed results of all the complete models estimated in the paper are available upon request from the authors.

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