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Journal of Population Economics

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 197–226 | Cite as

The emigration of immigrants, return vs onward migration: evidence from Sweden

  • Lena NekbyEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

This study analyzes emigration propensities for natives and immigrants delineating among immigrant emigrants between return and onward migration. Results indicate that emigrants are positively selected in terms of upper education. Well-educated immigrants have a higher probability of leaving for third-country destinations than returning to countries of origin. Predicted age–income profiles for immigrants show that return migrants have higher adjusted mean income levels than non-emigrants up to the age of 40. Onward migrants have lower predicted income levels across the age distribution due to this group’s composition and relatively low employment levels in Sweden. Separate estimations by region of origin indicate that within each group, onward migrants are more positively selected then return migrants in terms of income.

Keywords

Emigration Return migration Onward migration 

JEL Classification

J61 J15 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to Mahmood Arai for helpful comments as well as to seminar participants at the Department of Economics, Stockholm University, the Institute for Labor Market Policy Evaluation (IFAU), and the Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). The paper has greatly benefited from the comments of two anonymous referees. Finally, I wish to thank Finanspolitiska Forskningsinstitutet and the Jan Wallander Foundation and Tom Hedelius Foundation for research support.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden

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