The Bird Song Diamond (BSD) project is a series of multifaceted and multidisciplinary installations with the aim of bringing contemporary research on bird communication to a large public audience. Using art and technology to create immersive experiences, BSD allows large audiences to embody bird communication rather than passively observe. In particular, BSD Mimic, a system for mimicking bird song, asks participants to grapple with both audition and vocalization of birdsong. The use of interactive installations for public outreach provides unique experiences to a diverse audience, while providing direct feedback for artists and researchers interested in the success of such outreach. By following an iterative design process, both artists and researchers have been able to evaluate the effectiveness of each installation for promoting audience engagement with the subject matter. The execution and evaluation of each iteration of BSD is described throughout the paper. In addition, the process of interdisciplinary collaboration in our project has led to a more defined role of the artist as a facilitator of specialists. BSD Mimic has also led to further questions about the nature of audience collaboration for an engaged experience.
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Parametric speakers use ultrasonic frequencies to minimize the natural spread of waves over distance. Audible sound is used to modulate an ultrasonic wave which is emitted from the parametric speaker, while a second, unmodulated, ultrasonic carrier wave is also sent from the same speaker. When the two waveforms collide with an object, they demodulate to produce audible sound that is the difference between the modulating and carrier waves (Woodford 2018).
FFT is a signal processing technique in which a complex waveform, in this case sound, is broken down into its sinusoidal components. Using this technique, one can estimate the most prominent frequency of a sound, usually the pitch, by finding the frequency of the component wave with the highest amplitude.
8k resolution being 8192 × 4320 pixels. The system also uses a refresh rate of 120 Hz (Sick-Leitner 2015).
See the Deep Space 8k Mimic Scatterplot in Supplementary Materials for the overall plot of participant mimic attempts against the existing birdsong.
OpenGL is an application programming interface (API) used to render computer imagery (OpenGL 2018).
User Datagram Protocol (UDP), a communication protocol which is part of the Internet protocol suite (along with TCP and IP). OSC mentioned before is built on top of UDP (Postel 1980).
General Purpose Computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) uses multiple graphics cards for parallel processing of intensive calculations (Mung and Mann 2004).
A successor to the h.264 video compression standard, HEVC, was necessary to reduce file size for 8k resolution video (Sullivan et al. 2012).
See Supplementary Materials for more detailed explanation of the pan-tilt system.
Compatibility with Kinect v2’s HD face detection algorithm was also implemented to enable speakers to follow the tracked face of a participant.
The raw data from the performance can be accessed here: https://bitbucket.org/johnbrumley/bsd-datasets.
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Research was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant ID: 1125423). Additional support provided by the Program for Empowerment Informatics at the University of Tsukuba and The University of California, Los Angeles. Martin Cody provided many of the recordings used throughout BSD. For people who have been involved with the BSD project over its various incarnations: Naoaki, Chiba, Jun Mitani, Yan Zhao, Joel Ong, Max Kazemzadeh, Itsuki Doi, Norihiro Maruyama, Hikaru Takatori, Aisen Chacin, Masa Jazbec, Takeshi Oozu, Mary Tsang, Carol Parkinson, Linda Weintraub, and many others.
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Brumley, J., Taylor, C., Suzuki, R. et al. Bird Song Diamond in Deep Space 8k. AI & Soc 35, 87–101 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-018-0862-4
- Iterative design
- Interspecies communication
- Site/habitat specificity