, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 205–220 | Cite as

A conceptual model for acceptance of social CRM systems based on a scoping study

Original Article


Recent developments in information technology and Web services have increased the potential for creating more rapid and extensive social networks and business relationships. Web 2.0 technologies, commonly referred to as online social media, have become important tools within the growth of information and communication technology (ICT) in the last few years. Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, Wiki and other services, which are widely used by individuals, also have an effect on customer relationship management (CRM) systems. Consequently, social CRM (SCRM) is emerging as a new paradigm for integrating social networking in more traditional CRM systems. However, social CRM is yet to be fully utilised as a value-adding tool in improving customer relationships. This paper reports on a scoping study that explored the current situation of CRM adoption in banking industry in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this paper is to identify the factors that may influence businesses and customers’ adoption of social CRM. Various models have been proposed to study ICT and information systems acceptance and usage. This paper proposes an enhancement to one of these models, specifically the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), by incorporating a range of factors identified in the social networking and business relationships literature believed to influence social CRM adoption. In particular, the model proposes that familiarity, caring behaviour, sharing information and perceived trustworthiness can generate cognitive view about the relationships between employees and customers. This view besides Web 2.0 features may offer a way of analysing the potential adoption of social CRM.


CRM Web 2.0 Social CRM TAM Saudi Arabia Developing countries 


  1. Ajzen I (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 50(2):179–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali I (2007) Customer relationship management: a qualitative cross-case analysis in the UK and Saudi Arabia. Doctoral University of Stirling, StirlingGoogle Scholar
  3. Baran RJ, Galka RJ, Strunk DP (2008) Principles of customer relationship management. Thomson/South-Western, MasonGoogle Scholar
  4. Barsky E, Purdon M (2006) Introducing web 2.0: social networking and social bookmarking for health librarians. J Can Heal Libr Assoc/Journal de l’Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada (JCHLA/JABSC) 27:65–67Google Scholar
  5. Bitner MJ (1995) Building service relationships: it’s all about promises. J Acad Market Sci 23(4):246–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bohling T, Bowman D, LaValle S, Mittal V, Narayandas D, Ramani G, Varadarajan R (2006) Crm implementation: effectiveness issues and insights. J Serv Res 9(2):184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boulos MNK, Maramba I, Wheeler S (2006) Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education. BMC Med Educ 6(1):41. Available at Accessed 20 May 2009
  8. Bull C (2003) Strategic issues in customer relationship management (crm) implementation. Bus Process Manage J 9:592–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burns KS (2008) A historical examination of the development of social media and its application to the public relations industry. Paper presented at the 2008 ICA preconference, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  10. Burt RS (1992) Structural holes: the social structure of competition. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. Da Silva RV, Rahimi I (2007) A critical success factor model for crm implementation. Int J Electron Cust Relatsh Manage 1:3–15Google Scholar
  12. Davis FD (1989) Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Q 13(3):319–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davis FD, Bagozzi RP, Warshaw PR (1989) Uuser acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Manage Sci 35(8):982–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Egger FN (2001) Affective design of e-commerce user interfaces: how to maximise perceived trustworthiness. Paper presented at the proceedings of the international conference on affective human factors design, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Elowitz B, Li C (2009) The world’s most valuable brands. Who’s most engaged?—ranking the top 100 global brands. Available at Accessed 10 November 2009
  16. Fishbein M, Ajzen I (1975) Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research. Addison-wesley series in social psychology. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., ReadingGoogle Scholar
  17. Flavian C, Guinaliu M (2006) Consumer trust, perceived security and private policy: three basic elements of loyalty to a website. Ind Manage Data Syst 106(5):601–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ford WZ (2001) Customer expectations for interactions with service providers: relationship versus encounter orientation and personalized service communication. J Appl Commun Res 29:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fred DD (1993) User acceptance of information technology: system characteristics, user perceptions and behavioral impacts. Int J Man-Mach Stud 38(3):475–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frenzen J, Nakamoto K (1993) Structure, cooperation, and the flow of market information. J Consum Res 20(3):360–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fruchter R (2001) Bricks & bits & interaction. Paper presented at the proceedings of the joint JSAI 2001 workshop on new frontiers in artificial intelligenceGoogle Scholar
  22. Gouldner AW (1960) The norm of reciprocity: a preliminary statement. Am Sociol Rev 25(2):161–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Greenberg P (2004) Crm at the speed of light: essential customer strategies for the 21st century. McGraw-Hill, OsborneGoogle Scholar
  24. Greenberg P (2009) Crm at the speed of light: social crm strategies, tools, and techniques for engaging your customers, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, USAGoogle Scholar
  25. Gremler DD, Gwinner KP (2000) Customer-employee rapport in service relationships. J Serv Res 3(1):82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gremler DD, Gwinner KP, Brown SW (2001) Generating positive word-of-mouth communication through customer-employee relationships. Int J Serv Ind Manage 12:44–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hickson DJ, Pugh DS (1995) Management worldwide: the impact of societal culture on organizations around the globe. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Huston L, Sakkab N (2006) Connect and develop: inside Procter and Gamble’s new model for innovation. Harv Bus Rev 84(3):58–66Google Scholar
  29. Ibarra H (1993) Network centrality, power, and innovation involvement: determinants of technical and administrative roles. Acad Manage J 36(3):471–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson MD, Olsen LL, Andreassen TW (2009) Joy and disappointment in the hotel experience: managing relationship segments. Manage Serv Qual 19:4–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kamprath N, Roeglingery M (2009) An organizational perspective on critical success factors for customer relationship management—a descriptive case study. Paper presented at the Americas conference on information systems (AMCIS), AMCIS 2009 proceedings, USAGoogle Scholar
  32. Kania D (2001) Branding.Com: on-line branding for marketing success. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Karantinou KM, Hogg MK (2009) An empirical investigation of relationship development in professional business services. J Serv Mark 23:249–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kassar T (2010) The top broadband speed countries in the arab world. Interactive Middle East. Available at: Accessed 20 April 2010
  35. Kilduff M, Tsai W (2003) Social networks and organizations. SAGE Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. King N (2004) Using templates in thematic analysis of text. In: Cassell C, Symon G (eds) Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research. SAGE, London, pp 256–267Google Scholar
  37. King SF, Burgess TF (2008) Understanding success and failure in customer relationship management. Ind Mark Manage 37(4):421–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. King WR, He J (2006) A meta-analysis of the technology acceptance model. Inf Manage 43(6):740–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Koufaris M, Hampton-sosa W (2002) Initial perceptions of company trustworthiness online: a comprehensive model and empirical test. CIS working paper series. Zicklin School of Business, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Leary B (2008) Social crm: customer relationship management in the age of the socially-empowered customer. White paper (09/03/2009)Google Scholar
  41. Li C, Bernoff J (2008) Groundswell: winning in a world transformed by social technologies. Harvard Business Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  42. Ling-yee L (2006) Relationship learning at trade shows: its antecedents and consequences. Ind Mark Manage 35(2):166–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Long DE (2005) Culture and customs of Saudi Arabia. Greenwood Press, WestportGoogle Scholar
  44. Luhmann N (2000) Familiarity, confidence, trust: problems and alternatives. In: Gambetta D (ed) Trust: making and breaking cooperative relations. Electronic edition, Department of Sociology, University of Oxford, chapter 6. Available at Accessed 20 May 2009
  45. Mayer RC, Davis JH, Schoorman FD (1995) An integrative model of organizational trust. Acad Manage Rev 20(3):709–734Google Scholar
  46. McKnight DH, Cummings LL, Chervany NL (1998) Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. Acad Manage Rev 23(3):473–490Google Scholar
  47. Miller L, Berg J (1984) Selectivity and urgency in interpersonal exchange. In: Derlega JV (ed) Communication, intimacy, and close relationships. Academic Press, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  48. Ministry of Economy and Planning (2008) Saudi Arabia: long-term strategy for the Saudi economy—2005–2024. Available at http://wwwmepgovsa/. Accessed 07 Jan 2010
  49. Mohan S, Choi E, Min D (2008) Conceptual modeling of enterprise application system using social networking and web 2.0 “Social crm system”. Paper presented at the proceedings of the 2008 international conference on convergence and hybrid information technologyGoogle Scholar
  50. Morgan RM, Hunt SD (1994) The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. J Mark 58(3):20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Morgan SJ, Symon G (2004) Electronic interviews in organisation research. In: Cassell C, Symon G (eds) Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research. SAGE, London, pp 23–33Google Scholar
  52. Morrison C (2010) Saudi arabia leads the middle east with high growth in March. Inside facebook. Available at Accessed 16 April 2010
  53. Mukherjee A, Nath P (2003) A model of trust in online relationship banking. Int J Bank Market 21:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Musser J, O’Reilly T, Team TORR (2006) Web 2.0: principles and best practices. O’Reilly Radar Report. Available at Accessed 18 May 2009
  55. Newman A, Thomas J (2009) Enterprise 2.0 implementation. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Nishida T (2001) Social intelligence design—an overview. Paper presented at the proceedings of the joint JSAI 2001 workshop on new frontiers in artificial intelligenceGoogle Scholar
  57. O’Reilly T (2007) What is web 2.0: design patterns and business models for the next generation of software communications and strategies. Int J Digit Econ 65(1st quarter 2007):17–37Google Scholar
  58. Oakes PJ, Haslam SA, Morrison B, Grace D (1995) Becoming an in-group: reexamining the impact of familiarity on perceptions of group homogeneity. Social Psychol Q 58(1):52–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Osarenkhoe A, Bennani A-E (2007) An exploratory study of implementation of customer relationship management strategy. Bus Process Manage J 13:139–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Payne A, Frow P (2005) A strategic framework for customer relationship management. J Market 69(4):167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pesämaa O, Hair JF (2007) More than friendship is required: an empirical test of cooperative firm strategies. Manage Decis 45:602–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Piskar F, Faganel A (2009) A successful crm implementation project in a service company: case study. Organizacija 42(5):199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rahman S, Azhar SM (2008) Crm or service marketing: is there a choice in developing market economies? Int Rev Bus Res Papers 4(2):249–264Google Scholar
  64. Schneider B, Parkington JJ, Buxton VM (1980) Employee and customer perceptions of service in banks. Adm Sci Q 25(2):252–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shin D-H, Kim W-Y (2008) Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to cyworld user behavior: implication of the web2.0 user acceptance. CyberPsychol Behav 11(3):378–382MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sigala M (2008) Integrating web 2.0 in e-learning environments: a socio-technical approach. Int Knowl Learn 3:628–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Smith A (2006) Crm and customer service: strategic asset or corporate overhead? Handb Bus Strateg 7(1):87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stone M, Woodcock N, Machtynger L (2000) Customer relationship marketing: get to know your customers and win their loyalty. Marketing in action series. Kogan Page in association with Marketing magazine, LondonGoogle Scholar
  69. Venkatesh V, Davis FD (2000) A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. Manage Sci 46(2):186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Venkatesh V, Morris MG (2000) Why don’t men ever stop to ask for directions? Gender, social influence, and their role in technology acceptance and usage behavior. MIS Q 24(1):115–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Venkatesh V, Morris MG, Davis GB, Davis FD (2003) User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view. MIS Q 27(3):425–478Google Scholar
  72. Wang YS, Wang YM, Lin HH, Tang TI (2003) Determinants of user acceptance of internet banking: an empirical study. Int Serv Ind Manage 14:501–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wei-Chi T, Yin-Mei H (2002) Mechanisms linking employee affective delivery and customer behavioral intentions. J Appl Psychol 87(5):1001–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wells C (2003) The complete idiot’s guide to understanding Saudi Arabia. Alpha, IndianapolisGoogle Scholar
  75. Wu IL, Wu KW (2005) A hybrid technology acceptance approach for exploring e-crm adoption in organizations. Behav Inf Technol 24(4):303–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Informatics Research Centre, Henley Business SchoolUniversity of ReadingReadingUK

Personalised recommendations