Advertisement

AI & SOCIETY

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 147–166 | Cite as

‘Social’ systems: designing digital systems that support social intelligence

  • Thomas EricksonEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Large groups of people exhibit social intelligence: coherent behavior directed towards individual or collective goals. This paper examines ways in which such behavior is produced in face to face situations, and discusses how it can be supported in online systems used by geographically distributed groups. It describes the concept of a “social proxy,” a minimalist visualization of the presence and activities of participants in an online interaction that is used to make online social norms visible. It summarizes experience with an implemented system, presents conceptual designs that illustrate the range of situations to which social proxies can be applied, and discusses how to go about designing these types of visualizations.

Keywords

Social Norm Audience Member Social Intelligence Coherent Behavior Social Collective 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks to those involved in the Babble and Loops projects: Erin Bradner, Jason Ellis, Brent Hailpern, Christine Halverson, Wendy Kellogg, Mark Laff, Peter Malkin, John Richards, David N. Smith, Jeremy Sussman, Cal Swart, Tracee Wolf, and several generations of users. And thanks to my IBM colleagues in the Social Computing and Next Generation Web Interface groups for support and inspiration.

References

  1. Bradner E, Kellogg WA, Erickson T (1999) The adoption and use of “Babble” : a field study of chat in the workplace. In: Proceedings of the 6th European conference on computer-supported cooperative work. Kluwer, Norwell, pp 139–158Google Scholar
  2. Churchill EF, Snowdon DN, Munro AJ (eds) (2001) Collaborative virtual environments: digital places and spaces for interaction. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  3. Ding X, Erickson T, Kellogg WA, Levy S, Christensen JE, Sussman J, Wolf TV, Bennett WE (2007) An empirical study of the use of visually enhanced VoIP audio conferencing: the case of IEAC. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems. ACM Press, New York, pp 1019–1028Google Scholar
  4. Erickson T, Huang W, Danis C, Kellogg WA (2004) A social proxy for distributed tasks: design and evaluation of a working prototype. In: The proceedings of CHI 2004. ACM Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Erickson T, Kellogg WA (2000) Social translucence: an approach to designing systems that mesh with social processes. In: Transactions on computer-human interaction, vol 7(1). ACM Press, New York, pp 59–83Google Scholar
  6. Erickson T, Kellogg WA, Laff M, Sussman J, Wolf TV, Halverson CA, Edwards DA (2006) A persistent chat space for work groups: the design, evaluation and deployment of loops. In: The proceedings of DIS 2006. ACM Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Erickson T, Laff M (2001) The design of the ‘babble’ timeline: a social proxy for visualizing group activity over time. In: The proceedings of CHI 2001. ACM Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Erickson T, Kellogg WA (2003) Knowledge communities: online environments for supporting knowledge management and its social context. In: Ackerman Pipek, Wulf V (eds) Sharing expertise: beyond knowledge management. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 299–326Google Scholar
  9. Erickson T, Smith DN, Kellogg WA, Laff MR, Richards JT, Bradner E (1999) Socially translucent systems: social proxies, persistent conversation, and the design of babble. In: The proceedings of CHI 1999. ACM Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Finn EK, Sellen AJ, Wilbur SB (eds) (1997) Video-mediated communication. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale Google Scholar
  11. Glasser L, Huhns (1989) Distributed artificial intelligence, vol 2 (Research Notes in Artificial Intelligence). Morgan Kaufman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  12. Goffman E (1963) Behavior in public places: notes on the social organization of gatherings. Doubleday Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Gordon D (1999) Ants at work: how an insect society is organized. Simon & Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Halverson CA, Erickson T, Sussman J (2003) What counts as success?: punctuated patterns of use in a persistent chat environment. In: Proceedings of the 2003 international ACM SIGGROUP conference on supporting group work. ACM Press, New York, pp 180–189Google Scholar
  15. Milgram S, Liberty HJ, Toldeo R, Wackenhut J (1986) Response to Intrusion into Waiting Lines J Pers Soc Psychol 5(4): 683–689 (Reprinted in Sabini and Silver (eds) The individual in a social world: essays and experiments, 2nd edn., McGraw-Hill, New York.)Google Scholar
  16. Milgram S (1977/1992) The individual in a social world: essays and experiments (2nd edn., Sabini and Silver (eds); originally published 1977). McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Moors T (2002) The SmartPhone: interactive group audio with complementary symbolic control. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on distributed communities on the web (Sydney, Australia, April 3–5, 2002)Google Scholar
  18. Rafaeli S, Noy A (2002) Online auctions, messaging, communication and social facilitation: a simulation and experimental evidence. Eur J Inf Syst, 11(3):196–207. Palgrave MacMillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Rafaeli S, Noy A (2005) Social presence: influence on bidders in internet auctions. Electronic markets, 15(2). Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith CW (1989) Auctions: the social construction of value. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Surowiecki J (2004) The wisdom of crowds: why the many are smarter than the few and how collective wisdom shapes business, economies, societies and nations. Random House, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Tufte ER (1990) Envisioning information. Graphics Press, Cheshire Google Scholar
  23. Whyte WH (1988) City: rediscovering the center. Doubleday, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Yankelovich N, Walker W, Roberts P, Wessler M, Kaplan J, Provino J (2004) Meeting central: making distributed meetings more effective. In: The proceedings of CSCW 2004. ACM Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Social Computing GroupIBM T.J. Watson Research CenterMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations