, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 113–132 | Cite as

A multi-agent based framework for the simulation of human and social behaviors during emergency evacuations

  • Xiaoshan PanEmail author
  • Charles S. Han
  • Ken Dauber
  • Kincho H. Law
Original Article


Many computational tools for the simulation and design of emergency evacuation and egress are now available. However, due to the scarcity of human and social behavioral data, these computational tools rely on assumptions that have been found inconsistent or unrealistic. This paper presents a multi-agent based framework for simulating human and social behavior during emergency evacuation. A prototype system has been developed, which is able to demonstrate some emergent behaviors, such as competitive, queuing, and herding behaviors. For illustration, an example application of the system for safe egress design is provided.


Autonomous Agent Personal Space Floor Plan Crowd Behavior Crowd Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This research is partially supported by the Center for Integrated Facility Engineering at Stanford University. The authors would like to acknowledge the software support from AutoDesk, Inc.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoshan Pan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Charles S. Han
    • 2
  • Ken Dauber
    • 3
  • Kincho H. Law
    • 2
  1. 1.CDM Technologies Inc.San Luis ObispoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Google Inc.Mountain ViewUSA

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