, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 443–451 | Cite as

Information to control, knowledge to decide: a short account of a contemporary misunderstanding

Original Paper


There is a great distance between two pairs of concepts that are consistent in their own fields; namely, information/control and knowledge/decision. Although contemporary techno-sciences and common sense tend to neglect this distance, its intrinsic implications sometimes make it difficult to understand what is going on in our cultural events and developments. In particular, the abuse of the concepts of knowledge and decision makes it impossible to discriminate between the various levels of systems, both natural and naturoid, which surround us. In fact, the majority of so-called intelligent systems are mere information and control processors, rather than systems that are capable of generating knowledge and decision. The diffusion of such a misunderstanding may cause, in turn, the reduction of man to a mere information system based on established and discoverable rules, thereby neglecting his ability, albeit rarely exercised, to override information and control in order to discover or to set up something new.


Information control Knowledge and decision Innovation Production of knowledge Information processing Naturoids 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IMES-LCAUniversity of UrbinoUrbinoItaly

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