, Volume 21, Issue 1–2, pp 141–166 | Cite as

Unplanned effects of intelligent agents on Internet use: a social informatics approach

  • Alexander SerenkoEmail author
  • Umar Ruhi
  • Mihail Cocosila


This paper instigates a discourse on the unplanned effects of intelligent agents in the context of their use on the Internet. By utilizing a social informatics framework as a lens of analysis, the study identifies several unanticipated consequences of using intelligent agents for information- and commerce-based tasks on the Internet. The effects include those that transpire over time at the organizational level, such as e-commerce transformation, operational encumbrance and security overload, as well as those that emerge on a cultural level, such as trust affliction, skills erosion, privacy attrition and social detachment. Furthermore, three types of impacts are identified: economic, policy, and social. The discussion contends that economic impacts occur on the organizational level, social effects transpire on a cultural level, and policy impacts take place on both levels. These effects of the use of intelligent agents have seldom been predicted and discussed by visionaries, researchers, and practitioners in the field. The knowledge of these unplanned outcomes can improve our understanding of the overall impacts that innovative agent technologies may potentially have on organizations and individuals. Subsequently, this may help us develop better agent applications, facilitate the formulation of appropriate contingencies, and provide impetus for future research.


Internet Intelligent agents Impacts Social informatics 


  1. Abdul-Rahman A, Hailes S (1998) A distributed trust model, proceedings of the 1997 workshop on new security paradigms. The ACM Press, Langdale, pp 48–60Google Scholar
  2. Agre PE, Schuler D (1997) Reinventing technology, rediscovering: community critical explorations of computing as a social practice. Ablex Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson B, Tracey K (2001) Digital living: the impact (or otherwise) of the Internet on everyday life. Am Behav Sci 45:456–475Google Scholar
  4. Barber B (1983) The logic and limits of trust. Rutgers University Press, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes SB (2003) Computer-mediated communication: human-to-human communication across the Internet. Pearson Allyn & Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergman R, Griss M, Staelin C (2002) A personal email assistant, Technical Report HPL-2002-236, Hewlett-Packard CompanyGoogle Scholar
  7. Bing J (2004) Electronic agents and intellectual property law. Artif Intell Law 12:39–52Google Scholar
  8. Boden MA (1978) Social implications of intelligent machines. In: Proceedings of the ACM/CSC-ER annual conference. The ACM Press, Langdale, pp 746–752Google Scholar
  9. Boden MA (1990) The social impact of artificial intelligence. In: Kurzweil R (eds) The age of intelligent machines. The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 450–453Google Scholar
  10. Borking JJ, van Eck BMA, Siepel P (1999) Information and Privacy Commission of Ontario and Registratiekamer, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  11. Brackenbury I, Ravin Y (2002) Machine intelligence and the turing test. IBM Syst J 41:524–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bradshaw JM (1997) An introduction to software agents. In: Bradshaw JM (eds) Software agents. The AAAI Press / The MIT Press, Menlo Park, pp 3–46Google Scholar
  13. Braverman H (1974) Labor and monopoly capital: the degradation of work in the twentieth century. Monthly Review Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Brazier F, Oskamp A, Prins C, Schellekens M, Wijngaards N (2004) Anonymity and software agents: an interdisciplinary challenge. Artif Intell Law 12:137–157Google Scholar
  15. Brennan LL (2004) The perils of access and immediacy: unintended consequences of information technology. In: Johnson VE (eds) Social, ethical and policy implications of information technology. Information Science Publishing, Hershey, pp 48–58Google Scholar
  16. Brunnstein K (1987) On the impact of industrial automation, robotics and artificial intelligence on the vulnerability of information economy. In: Proceedings of the IFIP TC 9 international working conference on social implications of robotics and advanced industrial engineering, Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Tel-Aviv, pp 53–68Google Scholar
  17. Camacho D, Borrajo D, Molina JM (2001) Intelligent travel planning: a multiagent planning system to solve Web problems in the e-tourism domain. Auton Agents Multi Agent Syst 4:387–392Google Scholar
  18. Castelfranchi C, Tan YH (eds) (2001) The role of trust and deception in virtual societies, Kluwer Academic Publishing, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  19. Clarke S, Drake P (2003) A social perspective on information security: theoretically grounding the domain. In: Clarke S, Coakes E, Hunter MG, Wenn A (eds) Socio-technical and human cognition elements of information systems, Information Science Publishing, Hershey, pp 249–265Google Scholar
  20. Collins HM (1987) Expert systems and the science of knowledge. In: Bijker WE, Hughes TP, Pinch TJ (eds) The social construction of technological systems: new directions in the sociology and history of technology, The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 329–348Google Scholar
  21. Cook JS, Cook LL (2004) Compliance with data management laws. In: Brennan LL, Johnson VE (eds) Social, ethical and policy implications of information technology. Information Science Publishing, Hershey, pp 251–272Google Scholar
  22. Cummings JN, Butler B, Kraut R (2002) The quality of online social relationships. Commun ACM 45:103–108Google Scholar
  23. Davis DN, Sloman A, Poli R (1995) Simulating agents and their environments, AISB QuarterlyGoogle Scholar
  24. Descouza KC (2001) Intelligent agents for competitive intelligence: survey of applications. Competitive Intell Rev 12:57–63Google Scholar
  25. Detlor B (2000) The corporate portal as information infrastructure: towards a framework for portal design. Int J Inf Manage 20:91–101Google Scholar
  26. Detlor B (2003) Information retrieval and intelligent agents, business K726 course notes, McMaster UniversityGoogle Scholar
  27. Detlor B (2004) Towards knowledge portals: from human issues to intelligent agents. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  28. Detlor B, Arsenault C (2002) Web information seeking and retrieval in digital library contexts: towards an intelligent agent solution. Online Inf Rev 6:404–412Google Scholar
  29. Detlor B, Ruhi U, Pollard C, Hanna D, Cocosila M, Zheng W, Fu E, Jiang T, Syros D (2003) Fostering robust library portals: an assessment of the McMaster University Library Gateway: MeRC Working Paper No. 4. Michael G. DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University, HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  30. Dillman DA (1999) Mail and Internet surveys: the tailored design method. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Dryer DC (1999) Getting personal with computers: how to design personalities for agents. Appl Artif Intell 13:273–295Google Scholar
  32. DStar (2001) SAP/BiosGroup team to solve supply network complexity. DStar. Available online at Retrieved March 2004
  33. Egan M, Mather T (2005) The executive guide to information security: threats, challenges, and solutions. Addison-Wesley, IndianapolisGoogle Scholar
  34. Epstein RG (1996) The case of the killer robot: stories about the professional, ethical, and societal dimensions of computing. Wiley Text Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Epstein RG, Kumar D (2000) Curriculum descant: stories and plays about the ethical and social implications of artificial intelligence. Intelligence 11:17–19Google Scholar
  36. Ferrigno-Stack J, Robinson JP, Kestnbaum M, Neustadtl A, Alvarez A (2003) Internet and society: a summary of research reported at webshop 2001. Soc Sci Comput Rev 21:73–117Google Scholar
  37. Firschein O, Fischler MA, Coles LS, Tenenbaum JM (1973) Forecasting and assessing the impact of artificial intelligence of society. In: Proceedings of the third international joint conference on artificial intelligence. Stanford Research Institute, Stanford, pp 105–120Google Scholar
  38. Gefen D, Karahanna E, Straub DW (2003) Trust and TAM in online shopping: an integrated model. MIS Quarterly 27:51–90Google Scholar
  39. Gilbert D, Aparicio M, Atkinson B, Brady S, Ciccarino J, Grosof B, O’Connor P, Osisek D, Pritko S, Spagna R, Wilson L (1995) IBM intelligent agent strategy. White paper. IBM CorporationGoogle Scholar
  40. Grandison T, Sloman M (2000) A Survey of trust in Internet applications. IEEE Communications Surveys 3:2–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gregory RL (1971) Social implications of intelligent machines, machine intelligence. In: Proceedings of the sixth annual machine intelligence workshop, Edinburgh University Press, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  42. Griss M, Letsinger R, Cowan D, Sayers C, VanHilst M, Kessler R (2002) CoolAgent: intelligent digital assistants for mobile professionals—Phase 1 retrospective, HP Laboratories report HPL-2002-55(R1). Hewlett-Packard CompanyGoogle Scholar
  43. Gruen D, Sidner C, Boettner C, Rich C (1999) A collaborative assistant for email. In: Proceedings of the conference on human factors and computing systems, The ACM Press, Pittsburg, pp 196–197Google Scholar
  44. Guan SU, Yang Y (2002) SAFE: secure agent roaming for e-commerce. Comput Ind Eng 42:481–493Google Scholar
  45. Havick J (2000) The impact of the Internet on a television-based society. Technol Soc 22:273–287Google Scholar
  46. Hayes-Roth B (1995) An architecture for adaptive intelligent systems. Artif Intell 72:329–365Google Scholar
  47. Hertzum M, Andersen HHK, Andersen V, Hansen CB (2002) Trust in information sources: seeking information from people, documents, and virtual agents. Interact Comput 14:575–599Google Scholar
  48. Hirschheim RA (1986) The effect of a priori views on the social implications of computing the case of office automation. ACM Comput Surv 18:165–195Google Scholar
  49. Hoffer E (1972) Automation is here to liberate us. In: Moore WE (eds) Technology and social change, Quandrangle Books, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  50. Hoos IR (1960) When the computer takes over the office. Harvard Bus Rev 38:102–112Google Scholar
  51. Howard PEN, Rainie L, Jones S (2001) Days and nights on the Internet: the impact of a diffusing technology. Am Behav Sci 45:383–404Google Scholar
  52. Jaiswal A, Kim Y, Gini M (2003) Security model for a multi-agent marketplace. In: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on electronic commerce, The ACM Press, Pittsburgh, pp 119–124Google Scholar
  53. Jennings NR (2001) An agent-based approach for building complex software systems. Commun ACM 44:35–41Google Scholar
  54. Jennings NR, Wooldridge MJ (1998) Applications of intelligent agents. In: Jennings NR (eds) Agent technology: Foundations, applications, and markets, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 3–28Google Scholar
  55. Jennings NR, Norman TJ, Faratin P, O’Brien P, Odgers B (2000) Autonomous agents for business process management. Int J Appl Artif Intell 14:145–189Google Scholar
  56. Jianga YC, Xiab ZY, Zhonga YP, Zhang SY (2005) Autonomous trust construction in multi-agent systems - a graph theory methodology. Adv Eng Softw 36:59–66Google Scholar
  57. Jones AJI (2002) On the concept of trust. Decis Support Syst 33:225–232Google Scholar
  58. Karat C-M, Karat J, Brodie C (2005) Why HCI research in privacy and security is critical now. Int J Hum Comput Stud 63:1–4Google Scholar
  59. Kay A (1990) User interface: a personal view. In: Laurel B (eds) The art of human-computer interface design. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Reading, Mass, pp 191–207Google Scholar
  60. Keeble RJ, Macredie RD (2000) Assistant agents for the world wide web intelligent interface design challenges. Interact Comput 12:357–381Google Scholar
  61. Kephart JO, Hanson JE, Greenwald AR (2000) Dynamic pricing by software agents. Comput Netw 32:731–752Google Scholar
  62. Kini A, Choobineh J (1998) Trust in electronic commerce: definition and theoretical considerations. In: Proceedings of the thirty-first Hawaii international conference on system sciences, Hawaii, pp 51–61Google Scholar
  63. Kivinen O (2000) Internet erodes knowledge of Finland’s second language, Helsingin Sanomat Column - Tuesday 13.6.2000Google Scholar
  64. Kling R (ed) (1996) Computerization and controversy: value conflicts and social choices, Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  65. Kling R (1999) What is social informatics and why does it matter?, D-Lib Magazine 5Google Scholar
  66. Kling R, Rosenbaum H, Hert C (1998) Social informatics in information science: an introduction. J Am Soc Inf Sci 49:1047–1052Google Scholar
  67. Kling R, Crawford H, Rosenbaum H, Sawyer S, Weisband S (2000) Center for social informatics. Indiana University, IN, pp 1–210Google Scholar
  68. Kraut R, Kiesler S, Mukhopadhya T, Scherlis W, Patterson M (1998a) Social impact of the Internet: what does it mean? Commun ACM 41:21–22Google Scholar
  69. Kraut R, Lundmark V, Patterson M, Kiesler S, Mukopadhyay T, Scherlis W (1998b) Internet paradox: a social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? Am Psychol 53:1017–1031Google Scholar
  70. Kurzweil R (1990) The age of intelligent machines. MIT Press, Cambridge, MassGoogle Scholar
  71. Kurzweil R (1999) The age of spiritual machines: when computers exceed human intelligence. Penguin Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. Lanier J (1995) Agents of alienation. Interactions 2:66–72Google Scholar
  73. Lashkari Y, Metral M, Maes P (1994) Collaborative interface agents. In: Proceedings of the twelfth national conference on artificial intelligence, AAAI Press, Seattle, pp 444–450Google Scholar
  74. Lee J (2001) In China, computer use erodes traditional handwriting, stirring a cultural debate, The New York Times February 1, 2001Google Scholar
  75. Lee HS, Park K, Kim SY (2003) Estimation of information value on the Internet: application of hedonic price model. Electron Commer Res Appl 2:73–80zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  76. Lieberman H (1995) Letizia: an agent that assists web browsing. In: Proceedings of the international joint conference on artificial intelligence, Montreal, pp 924–929Google Scholar
  77. Lieberman H, Rosenzweig E, Singh P (2001) Aria: an agent for annotating and retrieving images. IEEE Comput 34:57–62Google Scholar
  78. Lin N (2001) Social capital: a theory of social structure and action. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  79. Lucas W (1998) Effects of e-mail on the organization. Eur Manage J 16:18–30MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  80. Luo X (2002) Trust production and privacy concerns on the Internet: a framework based on relationship marketing and social exchange theory. Ind Mark Manage 31:111–118Google Scholar
  81. Maes P (1994) Agents that reduce work and information overload. Commun ACM 37:31–40Google Scholar
  82. Maes P (1997) Pattie Maes on software agents: humanizing the global computer. IEEE Internet Comput 1:10–19Google Scholar
  83. Maes P (1999) Smart commerce: the future of intelligent agents in cyberspace. J Interactive Mark 13:66–76Google Scholar
  84. Maes P, Kozierok R (1993) Learning interface agents. In: Proceedings of the 11th national conference on artificial intelligence (AAAI 1993), MIT Press Cambridge, MA, pp 459–465Google Scholar
  85. Maes P, Guttman RH, Moukas AG (1999) Agents that buy and sell. Commun ACM 42:81–91Google Scholar
  86. Malhotra NK, Kim SS, Agarwal J (2004) Internet users’ information privacy concerns (IUIPC): the construct, the scale, and a causal model. Inf Syst Res 15:336–355Google Scholar
  87. Maybury MT (1990) The mind matters: artificial intelligence and its societal implications. IEEE Technol Soc Mag 9:7–15Google Scholar
  88. McBreen HM, Jack MA (2001) Evaluating humanoid synthetic agents in e-retail applications. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 31:394–405Google Scholar
  89. McIver WJ Jr (2004) Global perspectives on the information society. In: Johnson VE (eds) Social, ethical and policy implications of information technology, Information Science Publishing, HersheyGoogle Scholar
  90. Mea VD (2001) Agents acting and moving in healthcare scenario - a paradigm for telemedical collaboration. IEEE Trans Eng Manage Inf Technol Biomed 5:10–13Google Scholar
  91. Menczer F, Street WN, Monge AE (2002) Adaptive assistants for customized e-shopping, IEEE Intelligent Systems 17Google Scholar
  92. Metzger MJ (2004) Privacy, trust, and disclosure: exploring barriers to electronic commerce. J Comput Mediated Commun 9Google Scholar
  93. Miller RL (1982) Intermediate microeconomics: theory, issues, applications. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  94. Minsky M (1979) The society theory of thinking. In: Winston PH, Brown RH (eds) Artificial intelligence: an MIT perspective. The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 421–452Google Scholar
  95. Moon Y, Nass C (1998) Are computers scapegoats? Attributions of responsibility in human–computer interaction. Int J Hum Comput Stud 49:79–94Google Scholar
  96. Mouratidis H (2005) Safety and security in multiagent systems: report on the 2nd SASEMAS workshop. Comput Secur 24:614–617Google Scholar
  97. Muir BM (1987) Trust between humans and machines, and the design of decision aids. Int J Man Mach Stud 27:527–539MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Muir BM (1996) Trust in automation part II: experimental studies of trust and human intervention in a process control simulation. Ergonomics 39:429–469Google Scholar
  99. Murray J, Schell D, Willis C (1997) User centered design in action: developing an intelligent agent application. In: Proceedings of the 15th annual international conference on computer documentation, The ACM Press, Salt Lake City, pp 181–188Google Scholar
  100. Nabeth T, Roda C (2002) Intelligent agents and the future of identity in e-society, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies Report; Special issue on Identity & Privacy September 2002Google Scholar
  101. Nass C, Steuer J, Henriksen L, Dryer DC (1994) Machines, social attributions, and ethopoeia: performance assessments of computers subsequent to ‘self-’ or ‘other-’ evaluations. Int J Hum Comput Stud 40:543–559Google Scholar
  102. Nie NH (2001) Sociability, interpersonal relations, and the Internet: reconciling conflicting findings. Ame Behav Sci 45:420–435Google Scholar
  103. Nie NH, Erbring L (2002) Internet and society: a preliminary report. IT Soc 1:275–283Google Scholar
  104. Norman TJ, Jennings NR (2002) Constructing a virtual training laboratory using intelligent agents. Int J Cont Eng Life-Long Learning 12:201–213MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  105. Nwana HS, Ndumu DT (1999) A perspective on software agents research. The Knowl Eng Rev 14:1–18Google Scholar
  106. Nwana HS, Rosenschein J, Sandholm T, Sierra C, Maes P, Guttmann R (1998) Agent-mediated electronic commerce: issues, challenges and some viewpoints. In: Proceedings of the second international conference on autonomous agents, The ACM Press, Minneapolis, pp 189–196Google Scholar
  107. Pacey A (1983) The culture of technology. Basil Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  108. Papadopoulou P, Andreau A, Kanellie P, Martakos D (2001) Trust and relationship building in electronic commerce. Internet Res 11:322–332Google Scholar
  109. Pendharkara PC, Rodgerb JA (2003) Technical efficiency-based selection of learning cases to improve forecasting accuracy of neural networks under monotonicity assumption. Decision Support Syst 36:117–136Google Scholar
  110. Picard RW (1997) Affective computing. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  111. Pickering J (2001) Human identity in the age of software agents. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on cognitive technology: instruments of mind. Lecture notes in computer science, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 442–451Google Scholar
  112. Porter ME (1979) How competitive forces shape industry. Harvard Bus Rev 57:137–145Google Scholar
  113. Postman N (1992) Technopoly: the surrender of culture to technology. Alfred A. Knopf, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  114. Raisinghani MS (2000) Software agents in today’s digital economy: transition to the knowledge society. In: Rahman SM, Bignall RJ (eds) Internet commerce and software agents. Idea Group Publishing, Hershey, pp 88–100Google Scholar
  115. Raisinghani MS (2001) Software agents in today’s digital economy: transition to the knowledge society. In: Rahman SM, Bignall RJ (eds) Internet commerce and software agents: cases, technologies and opportunities. Idea Group Publishing, Hershey pp 88–100Google Scholar
  116. Raisinghani MS, Klassen C, Schkade LL (2002) Intelligent software agents in electronic commerce: a socio-technical perspective. In: Fazlollahi B (eds) Strategies for eCommerce success. IRM Press, Hershey, pp 196–207Google Scholar
  117. Ram S (2001) Intelligent agents and the world wide web: fact or fiction?. J Database Manage 12:46–47Google Scholar
  118. Regev J (1987) The inanimate and the intelligent. In: Proceedings of the IFIP TC 9 international working conference on social implications of robotics and advanced industrial engineering, Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Tel-Aviv, pp 53–68Google Scholar
  119. Rempel J, Holmes T (1986) How do I trust thee, Psychol Today 20:28–34Google Scholar
  120. Rempel JK, Holmes JG, Zanna MP (1985) Trust in close relationships. J Pers Soc Psychol 49:95–112Google Scholar
  121. Rice RE, Shook DE (1990) Relationships of job categories and organizational levels to use of communication channels, including electronic mail: a meta-analysis and extension. J Manage Stud 27:195–229Google Scholar
  122. Ripper PS, Fontoura MF, Neto AM, De Lucena CJP (2000) V-Market: a framework for agent e-commerce systems, World Wide Web 3:43–52Google Scholar
  123. Robels S (2001) Design of a trust model for secure multi-agent marketplace. In: Proceedings of the fifth international conference on autonomous agents, The ACM Press, Montreal, pp 77–78Google Scholar
  124. Roda C, Angehrn A, Nabeth T (2001) Matching competencies to enhance organizational knowledge sharing: an intelligent agents approach. In: Proceedings of the 7th international networking entities conference, Fribourg, pp 931–938Google Scholar
  125. Roda C, Angehrn A, Nabeth T, Razmerita L (2003) Using conversational agents to support the adoption of knowledge sharing practices. Interact Comput 15:57–89Google Scholar
  126. Rowley J (2000) Product searching with shopping bots. Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy 10:203–214Google Scholar
  127. Sackman H (1987) Salient international socio-economic impacts of artificial intelligence and robotics. In: Proceedings of the IFIP TC 9 international working conference on social implications of robotics and advanced industrial engineering, Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Tel-Aviv, pp 37–51Google Scholar
  128. Sakagami Y, Watanabe R, Aoyama C, Matsunaga S, Higaki N, Fujimura K (2002) The intelligent ASIMO: system overview and integration, IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and system, IEEE, Lausanne, pp 2478–2483Google Scholar
  129. Saygin AP, Cicekli I, Akman V (2000) Turing test: 50 years later. Minds Mach 10:463–518Google Scholar
  130. Schiaffinoa S, Amandi A (2004) User—interface agent interaction: personalization issues. Int J Hum Comput Stud 60:129–148Google Scholar
  131. Schmitz J, Fulk J (1991) Organizational colleagues, media richness, and electronic mail: a test of the social influence model of technology use. Commun Res 18:487–523Google Scholar
  132. Schneiderman B (1983) Direct manipulation: a step beyond programming languages. IEEE Comput 16:57–69Google Scholar
  133. Serenko A (2003) Intelligent agents for eCommerce and privacy issues: building a framework. In: Proceedings of the 24th world congress on the management of electronic business, McMaster University, HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  134. Serenko A (2006) The importance of interface agent characteristics from the end-user perspective. Int J Intell Inf Technol 2:48–59Google Scholar
  135. Serenko A, Cocosila M (2003) The social impacts of intelligent agents on Internet use. In: Proceedings of the international and interdisciplinary conference of the association of Internet researchers, AoIR, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  136. Serenko A, Detlor B (2004) Intelligent agents as innovations. AI Soc 18:364–381Google Scholar
  137. Shoham Y (1997) An overview of agent-oriented programming. In: Bradshaw JM (eds) Software agents. The AAAI Press / The MIT Press, Menlo Park, pp 271–290Google Scholar
  138. Smith AE, Nugent CD, McClean SI (2003) Evaluation of inherent performance of intelligent medical decision support systems: utilizing neural networks as an example. Artif Intell Med 27:1–27zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  139. Spinello RA, Gallaugher J, Waddock S (2004) Managing workplace privacy responsibility. In: Brennan LL, Johnson VE (eds) Social, ethical and policy implications of information technology. Information Science Publishing, Hershey, pp 74–97Google Scholar
  140. Sproull L, Kiesler SB (1991) Connections: new ways of working in the networked organization. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  141. Sycara K, Decker K, Williamson M (1997) Mobile agents for the Internet. In: Proceedings of the fifteenth international joint conference on artificial intelligence, Nagoya, AichiGoogle Scholar
  142. Tang TY, Winoto P, Niu X (2002) Who can I trust? Investigating trust between users and agents in a multi-agent portfolio management system. In: Proceedings of the american association for artificial intelligence - 2002 workshop on autonomy, Delegation, and Control: From Inter-agent to Groups, AAAI Press, Edmonton, pp 78–85Google Scholar
  143. Tansey SD (2003) Business, information technology and society. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  144. Trevino LK, Daft RL, Lengel RH (1990) Understanding managers’ media choices: a symbolic interactionist perspective. In: Fulk J, Steinfield CW (eds) Organizations and communications technologies. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, pp 71–94Google Scholar
  145. Turban E, King D, Viehland D, Lee J (2005) Electronic commerce 2006: a managerial perspective. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  146. Turing A (1950) Computing machinery and intelligence. Minds 59:433–460MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  147. Vijayasarathy LR, Jones JM (2001) Do Internet shopping aids make a difference? An empirical investigation, Electron Mark 11:75–83Google Scholar
  148. Wagner DN (2000) Software agents take the Internet as a shortcut to enter society: a survey of new actors to study for social theory by, volume, number, First Monday 5Google Scholar
  149. Wagner T, Lesser V (2001) Evolving real-time local agent control for large-scale multi-agent systems. In: Proceedings of the conference on agent theories, architectures, and languages, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 51–68Google Scholar
  150. Webster J, Trevino LK (1995) Rational and social theories as complementary explanations of communication media choices: two policy-capturing studies. Acad Manage J 38:1544–1572Google Scholar
  151. Weizenbaum J (1976) Computer power and human reason: from judgment to calculation. W. H. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  152. Welfens PJJ (2002) a macroeconomic, deregulation, and innovation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  153. Westin AF (1967) Privacy and freedom. Atheneum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  154. Wettig S, Zehender E (2004) A legal analysis of human and electronic agents. Artif Intell Law 12:111–135Google Scholar
  155. Winograd T, Flores F (1986) Understanding computers and cognition : a new foundation for design. Ablex Pub. Corp, NorwoodzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  156. Wong HC, Sycara K (1999) Adding security and trust to multi-agent systems. In: Proceedings of autonomous agents ‘99. workshop on deception, fraud, and trust in agent societies, The Robotics Institute, Seattle, pp 149–161Google Scholar
  157. Woodbury MC (2004) What, me, worry? The empowerment of employees. In: Brennan LL, Johnson VE (eds) Social, ethical and policy implications of information technology. Information Science Publishing, Hershey, pp 59–73Google Scholar
  158. Woolgan S (1987) Reconstructing man and machine: a note on sociological critiques of congnitivism. In: Bijker WE, Hughes TP, Pinch TJ (eds) The social construction of technological systems: new directions in the sociology and history of technology. The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 311–328Google Scholar
  159. Yazdani M (1984) Intelligent machines and human society. In: Yazdani M, Narayanan A (eds) Artificial intelligence: human effects. Chichester, UK, pp 63–65Google Scholar
  160. Yazdani M, Narayanan A (eds) (1984) Intelligent machines and human society, The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Business AdministrationLakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada
  2. 2.DeGroote School of BusinessMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations