, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 138–150 | Cite as

Experimental investigation into influence of negative attitudes toward robots on human–robot interaction

  • Tatsuya NomuraEmail author
  • Takayuki Kanda
  • Tomohiro Suzuki
Original Article


Negative attitudes toward robots are considered as one of the psychological factors preventing humans from interacting with robots in the daily life. To verify their influence on humans‘ behaviors toward robots, we designed and executed experiments where subjects interacted with Robovie, which is being developed as a platform for research on the possibility of communication robots. This paper reports and discusses the results of these experiments on correlation between subjects’ negative attitudes and their behaviors toward robots. Moreover, it discusses influences of gender and experience of real robots on their negative attitudes and behaviors toward robots.


Human–Robot interaction Negative attitudes toward robots Psychological experiments Gender difference 



This research was supported by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. We thank Prof. Masahiro Sakamoto of Bunkyo Gakuin University for providing us with the Japanese version of the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24), as his form of cooperation with our research on constructing the Negative Attitude toward Robots Scale. Moreover, we thank Dr. Kensuke Kato in Osaka University for his cooperation in checking the content validity of the Negative Attitude toward Robots Scale. We also thank Dr. Christoph Bartneck of the Technical University of Eindhoven and his colleagues for their cooperation on translating the Negative Attitude toward Robots Scale into English.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatsuya Nomura
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Takayuki Kanda
    • 2
  • Tomohiro Suzuki
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Media InformaticsRyukoku UniversityShigaJapan
  2. 2.ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication LaboratoriesKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of SociologyToyo UniversityTokyoJapan

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