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Non-black-box Simulation in the Fully Concurrent Setting, Revisited

  • Susumu KiyoshimaEmail author
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Abstract

We give a new proof of the existence of \(O(n^{\epsilon })\)-round public-coin concurrent zero-knowledge arguments for \(\mathcal {NP}\), where \(\epsilon >0\) is an arbitrary constant. The security is proven in the plain model under the assumption that collision-resistant hash functions exist. The existence of such concurrent zero-knowledge arguments was previously proven by Goyal (STOC’13) in the plain model under the same assumption. In the proof, we use a new variant of the non-black-box simulation technique of Barak (FOCS’01). An important property of our simulation technique is that the simulator runs in a “straight-line” manner in the fully concurrent setting. Compared with the simulation technique of Goyal, which also has such a property, the analysis of our simulation technique is (arguably) simpler.

Keywords

Zero-knowledge proofs Concurrent zero-knowledge Non-black-box simulation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author greatly thanks the anonymous reviewers of Journal of Cryptology and TCC 2015 for their useful comments about the presentation of this paper. I also thank an anonymous reviewer of TCC 2015 for pointing out an error that I made in an earlier version of this paper.

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Copyright information

© International Association for Cryptologic Research 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NTT Secure Platform LaboratoriesTokyoJapan

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