Machine Vision and Applications

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 705–719 | Cite as

Vision based smoke detection system using image energy and color information

  • Simone CalderaraEmail author
  • Paolo Piccinini
  • Rita Cucchiara
Original Paper


Smoke detection is a crucial task in many video surveillance applications and could have a great impact to raise the level of safety of urban areas. Many commercial smoke detection sensors exist but most of them cannot be applied in open space or outdoor scenarios. With this aim, the paper presents a smoke detection system that uses a common CCD camera sensor to detect smoke in images and trigger alarms. First, a proper background model is proposed to reliably extract smoke regions and avoid over-segmentation and false positives in outdoor scenarios where many distractors are present, such as moving trees or light reflexes. A novel Bayesian approach is adopted to detect smoke regions in the scene analyzing image energy by means of the Wavelet Transform coefficients and Color Information. A statistical model of image energy is built, using a temporal Gaussian Mixture, to analyze the energy decay that typically occurs when smoke covers the scene then the detection is strengthen evaluating the color blending between a reference smoke color and the input frame. The proposed system is capable of detecting rapidly smoke events both in night and in day conditions with a reduced number of false alarms hence is particularly suitable for monitoring large outdoor scenarios where common sensors would fail. An extensive experimental campaign both on recorded videos and live cameras evaluates the efficacy and efficiency of the system in many real world scenarios, such as outdoor storages and forests.


Smoke detection Image processing MoG DWT 


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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simone Calderara
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paolo Piccinini
    • 1
  • Rita Cucchiara
    • 1
  1. 1.DIIUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaModenaItaly

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