Pharmacokinetics of sequential intravenous and enteral fluconazole in critically ill surgical patients with invasive mycoses and compromised gastro-intestinal function
Objectives: (1) To determine the pharmacokinetics of sequential intravenous and enteral fluconazole in the serum of surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients with deep mycoses. (2) To determine the concentrations of fluconazole reached at the site of infection. (3) To determine if enteral administration of fluconazole, which has an important pharmaco-economic advantage, is justified in this specific patient group. Design: Descriptive, sequential study as a part of a therapeutic drug monitoring programme. Setting: Eighteen-bed surgical ICU in a referral centre. Patients: Fourteen critically ill surgical patients with recent gastro-intestinal (GI) surgery and deep mycosis caused by a fluconazole-susceptible fungus and a calculated creatinine clearance of more than 40 ml/min. Interventions: Fluconazole dosage regimen: 400 mg i.v. every 24 h with an extra dose of 400 mg i.v. after 12 h on day 1. If the clinical condition allowed enteral administration on day 4, the content of two capsules of 200 mg was given via the feeding tube with concomitant enteral feeds. Measurements and main results: Serum, exudate from the site of infection and urine samples collected at assumed steady state ( after ≥5 doses). Fluconazole concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean area under the concentration curve (AUC0–24 h) in serum after enteral administration did not significantly differ from the AUC0–24 h during intravenous treatment. The elimination half-life was longer compared to healthy volunteers. The mean (95% CI) estimated bioavailability was 124 (90–158)%. The mean (95% CI) area under the concentration time curves (AUCs) achieved in the exudate from the site of infection were 67 (55–79)% of the AUCs reached in serum for both regimens. Conclusions: In critically ill patients with recent GI surgery and/or peritonitis the bioavailability of enteral fluconazole was adequate. The concentrations of fluconazole reached in exudate were lower than those in serum for both regimens, but adequate to treat most cases of deep mycoses in this specific patient group.
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