Missed vaccinations and critical care admission: all you may wish to know or rediscover—a narrative review

  • Laure F. PittetEmail author
  • Mohamed Abbas
  • Claire-Anne Siegrist
  • Didier Pittet
Narrative Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Severe infections in the critically ill


Most vaccines are so effective that they could lead to the control/elimination of the diseases they target and directly impact on intensive care admissions or complications. This is best illustrated by the use of vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, zoster, yellow fever, Ebola virus, influenza or measles—but also by third party strategies such as maternal, toddler and care-giver immunization. However, each of these vaccine-induced protection is threatened by insufficient vaccine uptake. Here, we briefly discuss how vaccine hesitancy has led to the resurgence of diseases that were considered as controlled and explore the effect of vaccine-hesitant healthcare workers on nosocomial infections. As intensive care physicians are in charge of polymorbid patients, we briefly summarize the current recommendations for vaccinations in high-risk patients. We finally give some perspective on ongoing research, and discuss how institutional policies and intensive care physicians could play a role in increasing the impact of vaccination, overall and in intensive care units.


Vaccine efficacy Vaccination coverage Vaccine hesitancy Maternal immunisation 


Author contributions

DP design the article structure. LFP and MA performed the literature search. LFP wrote the first draft of the manuscript. MA, CAS, and DP critically revised the work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


LFP is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Early Postdoc.Mobility Grant No. P2GEP3_178155).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Plotkin SL, Plotkin SA (2018) A short history of vaccination. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM (eds) Plotkin’s vaccines. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reisner-Senelar L (2011) The birth of intensive care medicine: Bjorn Ibsen’s records. Intensive Care Med 37:1084–1086PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Martinez M, Shukla H, Nikulin J, Mbaeyi C, Jorba J, Ehrhardt D (2019) Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication—Afghanistan, January 2018–May 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 68:729–733PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kyu HH, Mumford JE, Stanaway JD, Barber RM, Hancock JR, Vos T, Murray CJ, Naghavi M (2017) Mortality from tetanus between 1990 and 2015: findings from the global burden of disease study 2015. BMC Public Health 17:179PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    VanderEnde K, Gacic-Dobo M, Diallo MS, Conklin LM, Wallace AS (2018) Global routine vaccination coverage—2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 67:1261–1264PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ortiz JR, Neuzil KM, Shay DK, Rue TC, Neradilek MB, Zhou H, Seymour CW, Hooper LG, Cheng PY, Goss CH, Cooke CR (2014) The burden of influenza-associated critical illness hospitalizations. Crit Care Med 42:2325–2332PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang QL, Wan CM, MacDonald NE (2009) Vaccine preventable infections and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in critically ill children in China. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:182–185PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhou F, Shefer A, Wenger J, Messonnier M, Wang LY, Lopez A, Moore M, Murphy TV, Cortese M, Rodewald L (2014) Economic evaluation of the routine childhood immunization program in the United States, 2009. Pediatrics 133:577–585PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yu W, Lee LA, Liu Y, Scherpbier RW, Wen N, Zhang G, Zhu X, Ning G, Wang F, Li Y, Hao L, Zhang X, Wang H (2018) Vaccine-preventable disease control in the People’s Republic of China: 1949–2016. Vaccine 36:8131–8137PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Offit PA (2005) The Cutter incident: how America’s first polio vaccine led to the growing vaccine crisis. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wakefield AJ, Murch SH, Anthony A, Linnell J, Casson DM, Malik M, Berelowitz M, Dhillon AP, Thomson MA, Harvey P, Valentine A, Davies SE, Walker-Smith JA (1998) Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet 351:637–641PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Peters A, Tartari E, Lotfinejad N, Parneix P, Pittet D (2018) Fighting the good fight: the fallout of fake news in infection prevention and why context matters. J Hosp Infect 100:365–370PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McClure CC, Cataldi JR, O’Leary ST (2017) Vaccine hesitancy: where we are and where we are going. Clin Ther 39:1550–1562PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Watt JP, Wolfson LJ, O’Brien KL, Henkle E, Deloria-Knoll M, McCall N, Lee E, Levine OS, Hajjeh R, Mulholland K, Cherian T (2009) Burden of disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in children younger than 5 years: global estimates. Lancet 374:903–911PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nanduri SA, Sutherland AR, Gordon LK, Santosham M (2018) Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM (eds) Plotkin’s vaccines. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 301–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Peltola H (2000) Worldwide Haemophilus influenzae type b disease at the beginning of the 21st century: global analysis of the disease burden 25 years after the use of the polysaccharide vaccine and a decade after the advent of conjugates. Clin Microbiol Rev 13:302–317PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hajjeh RA, Privor-Dumm L, Edmond K, O’Loughlin R, Shetty S, Griffiths UK, Bear AP, Cohen AL, Chandran A, Schuchat A, Mulholland EK, Santosham M (2010) Supporting new vaccine introduction decisions: lessons learned from the Hib Initiative experience. Vaccine 28:7123–7129PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Welte T, Torres A, Nathwani D (2012) Clinical and economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia among adults in Europe. Thorax 67:71–79PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Drijkoningen JJ, Rohde GG (2014) Pneumococcal infection in adults: burden of disease. Clin Microbiol Infect 20(Suppl 5):45–51PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wotton CJ, Goldacre MJ (2012) Risk of invasive pneumococcal disease in people admitted to hospital with selected immune-mediated diseases: record linkage cohort analyses. J Epidemiol Community Health 66:1177–1181PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shea KM, Edelsberg J, Weycker D, Farkouh RA, Strutton DR, Pelton SI (2014) Rates of pneumococcal disease in adults with chronic medical conditions. Open Forum Infect Dis 1:ofu024PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Garcia-Vidal C, Carratala J, Fernandez-Sabe N, Dorca J, Verdaguer R, Manresa F, Gudiol F (2009) Aetiology of, and risk factors for, recurrent community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Microbiol Infect 15:1033–1038PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grau I, Ardanuy C, Cubero M, Benitez MA, Linares J, Pallares R (2016) Declining mortality from adult pneumococcal infections linked to children’s vaccination. J Infect 72:439–449PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Geno KA, Gilbert GL, Song JY, Skovsted IC, Klugman KP, Jones C, Konradsen HB, Nahm MH (2015) Pneumococcal capsules and their types: past, present, and future. Clin Microbiol Rev 28:871–899PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pittet LF, Posfay-Barbe KM (2012) Pneumococcal vaccines for children: a global public health priority. Clin Microbiol Infect 18(Suppl 5):25–36PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Borrow R, Heath PT, Siegrist CA (2012) Use of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in children: what is the evidence? Curr Opin Infect Dis 25:292–303PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jackson LA, Gurtman A, van Cleeff M, Jansen KU, Jayawardene D, Devlin C, Scott DA, Emini EA, Gruber WC, Schmoele-Thoma B (2013) Immunogenicity and safety of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in pneumococcal vaccine-naive adults. Vaccine 31:3577–3584PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Scott DA, Komjathy SF, Hu BT, Baker S, Supan LA, Monahan CA, Gruber W, Siber GR, Lockhart SP (2007) Phase 1 trial of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy adults. Vaccine 25:6164–6166PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pilishvili T, Bennett NM (2015) Pneumococcal disease prevention among adults: strategies for the use of pneumococcal vaccines. Vaccine 33(Suppl 4):D60–D65PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pittet LF, Verolet CM, Michetti P, Girardin M, Juillerat P, Mottet C, Maillard MH, Siegrist CA, Posfay-Barbe KM, Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study Group (2019) High immunogenicity of the pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in immunocompromised adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 114:1130–1141PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bonten MJ, Huijts SM, Bolkenbaas M, Webber C, Patterson S, Gault S, van Werkhoven CH, van Deursen AM, Sanders EA, Verheij TJ, Patton M, McDonough A, Moradoghli-Haftvani A, Smith H, Mellelieu T, Pride MW, Crowther G, Schmoele-Thoma B, Scott DA, Jansen KU, Lobatto R, Oosterman B, Visser N, Caspers E, Smorenburg A, Emini EA, Gruber WC, Grobbee DE (2015) Polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. N Engl J Med 372:1114–1125PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Castiglia P (2014) Recommendations for pneumococcal immunization outside routine childhood immunization programs in Western Europe. Adv Ther 31:1011–1044PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kim DK, Bridges CB, Harriman KH (2015) Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older—United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 64:91–92PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Staples JE, Monath TP, Gershman MD, Barrett ADT (2018) Yellow fever vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM (eds) Plotkin’s vaccines. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 1181–1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    World Health Organization (2018) A global strategy to eliminate yellow fever epidemics 2017–2026. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Casey RM, Harris JB, Ahuka-Mundeke S, Dixon MG, Kizito GM, Nsele PM, Umutesi G, Laven J, Kosoy O, Paluku G, Gueye AS, Hyde TB, Ewetola R, Sheria GKM, Muyembe-Tamfum J-J, Staples JE (2018) Immunogenicity of fractional-dose vaccine during a yellow fever outbreak—final report. N Engl J Med 381:444–454PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Halperin SA, Bettinger JA, Greenwood B, Harrison LH, Jelfs J, Ladhani SN, McIntyre P, Ramsay ME, Safadi MA (2012) The changing and dynamic epidemiology of meningococcal disease. Vaccine 30(Suppl 2):B26–B36PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ramsay ME, Andrews N, Kaczmarski EB, Miller E (2001) Efficacy of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in teenagers and toddlers in England. Lancet 357:195–196PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    World Health Organization (2019) Immunization. Accessed 8 Aug 2019
  40. 40.
    Mustapha MM, Harrison LH (2018) Vaccine prevention of meningococcal disease in Africa: major advances, remaining challenges. Hum Vaccines Immunother 14:1107–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bryan P, Seabroke S, Wong J, Donegan K, Webb E, Goldsmith C, Vipond C, Feavers I (2018) Safety of multicomponent meningococcal group B vaccine (4CMenB) in routine infant immunisation in the UK: a prospective surveillance study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2:395–403PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Parikh SR, Andrews NJ, Beebeejaun K, Campbell H, Ribeiro S, Ward C, White JM, Borrow R, Ramsay ME, Ladhani SN (2016) Effectiveness and impact of a reduced infant schedule of 4CMenB vaccine against group B meningococcal disease in England: a national observational cohort study. Lancet 388:2775–2782PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kuhdari P, Stefanati A, Lupi S, Valente N, Gabutti G (2016) Meningococcal B vaccination: real-world experience and future perspectives. Pathog Glob Health 110:148–156PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Harris JB, LaRocque RC, Qadri F, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB (2012) Cholera. Lancet 379:2466–2476PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    World Health Organization (2010) Cholera vaccines: WHO position paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 85:117–128Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Global Task Force on Cholera Control (2017) Ending cholera—a global roadmap to 2030. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ali M, Emch M, von Seidlein L, Yunus M, Sack DA, Rao M, Holmgren J, Clemens JD (2005) Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh: a reanalysis. Lancet 366:44–49PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Longini IM Jr, Nizam A, Ali M, Yunus M, Shenvi N, Clemens JD (2007) Controlling endemic cholera with oral vaccines. PLoS Med 4:e336PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jeuland M, Cook J, Poulos C, Clemens J, Whittington D (2009) Cost-effectiveness of new-generation oral cholera vaccines: a multisite analysis. Value Health 12:899–908PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Higgs ES, Dubey SA, Coller BAG, Simon JK, Bollinger L, Sorenson RA, Wilson B, Nason MC, Hensley LE (2017) Accelerating vaccine development during the 2013–2016 West African Ebola virus disease outbreak. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 411:229–261PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Agnandji ST, Huttner A, Zinser ME et al (2016) Phase 1 trials of rVSV Ebola vaccine in Africa and Europe. N Engl J Med 374:1647–1660PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Henao-Restrepo AM, Camacho A, Longini IM et al (2017) Efficacy and effectiveness of an rVSV-vectored vaccine in preventing Ebola virus disease: final results from the Guinea ring vaccination, open-label, cluster-randomised trial (Ebola ça suffit!). Lancet 389:505–518PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ilunga Kalenga O, Moeti M, Sparrow A, Nguyen VK, Lucey D, Ghebreyesus TA (2019) The ongoing Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2018–2019. N Engl J Med 381:373–383PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Straney L, Schibler A, Ganeshalingham A, Alexander J, Festa M, Slater A, MacLaren G, Schlapbach LJ (2016) Burden and outcomes of severe pertussis infection in critically ill infants. Pediatr Crit Care Med 17:735–742PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cherry JD (2012) Epidemic pertussis in 2012—the resurgence of a vaccine-preventable disease. N Engl J Med 367:785–787PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Esposito S, Stefanelli P, Fry NK, Fedele G, He Q, Paterson P, Tan T, Knuf M, Rodrigo C, Weil Olivier C, Flanagan KL, Hung I, Lutsar I, Edwards K, O’Ryan M, Principi N (2019) Pertussis prevention: reasons for resurgence, and differences in the current acellular pertussis vaccines. Front Immunol 10:1344PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wendelboe AM, Njamkepo E, Bourillon A, Floret DD, Gaudelus J, Gerber M, Grimprel E, Greenberg D, Halperin S, Liese J, Munoz-Rivas F, Teyssou R, Guiso N, Van Rie A (2007) Transmission of Bordetella pertussis to young infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:293–299PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lumbreras Areta M, Eberhardt CS, Siegrist CA, Martinez de Tejada B (2019) Antenatal vaccination to decrease pertussis in infants: safety, effectiveness, timing, and implementation. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 32:1541–1546PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Eberhardt CS, Blanchard-Rohner G, Lemaitre B, Boukrid M, Combescure C, Othenin-Girard V, Chilin A, Petre J, de Tejada BM, Siegrist CA (2016) Maternal immunization earlier in pregnancy maximizes antibody transfer and expected infant seropositivity against pertussis. Clin Infect Dis 62:829–836PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Eberhardt CS, Blanchard-Rohner G, Lemaitre B, Combescure C, Othenin-Girard V, Chilin A, Petre J, Martinez de Tejada B, Siegrist CA (2017) Pertussis antibody transfer to preterm neonates after second- versus third-trimester maternal immunization. Clin Infect Dis 64:1129–1132PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sobanjo-Ter Meulen A, Duclos P, McIntyre P, Lewis KD, Van Damme P, O’Brien KL, Klugman KP (2016) Assessing the evidence for maternal pertussis immunization: a report from the Bill & Melinda Gates foundation symposium on pertussis infant disease burden in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Clin Infect Dis 63:S123–S133PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lal H, Cunningham AL, Godeaux O, Chlibek R, Diez-Domingo J, Hwang SJ, Levin MJ, McElhaney JE, Poder A, Puig-Barbera J, Vesikari T, Watanabe D, Weckx L, Zahaf T, Heineman TC, Group ZOES (2015) Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. N Engl J Med 372:2087–2096PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cunningham AL, Lal H, Kovac M et al (2016) Efficacy of the herpes zoster subunit vaccine in adults 70 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 375:1019–1032PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jacobson RM, St Sauver JL, Finney Rutten LJ (2015) Vaccine hesitancy. Mayo Clin Proc 90:1562–1568PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Perry RT, Halsey NA (2004) The clinical significance of measles: a review. J Infect Dis 189:S4–S16PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kaplan LJ, Daum RS, Smaron M, McCarthy CA (1992) Severe measles in immunocompromised patients. JAMA 267:1237–1241PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Moss WJ, Griffin DE (2012) Measles. Lancet 379:153–164PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Avota E, Gassert E, Schneider-Schaulies S (2010) Measles virus-induced immunosuppression: from effectors to mechanisms. Med Microbiol Immunol 199:227–237PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Slifka MK, Homann D, Tishon A, Pagarigan R, Oldstone MB (2003) Measles virus infection results in suppression of both innate and adaptive immune responses to secondary bacterial infection. J Clin Investig 111:805–810PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Halsey NA (2006) Measles in developing countries. BMJ 333:1234PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    De Serres G, Gay NJ, Farrington CP (2000) Epidemiology of transmissible diseases after elimination. Am J Epidemiol 151:1039–1052PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hens N, Abrams S, Santermans E, Theeten H, Goeyvaerts N, Lernout T, Leuridan E, Van Kerckhove K, Goossens H, Van Damme P, Beutels P (2015) Assessing the risk of measles resurgence in a highly vaccinated population: Belgium anno 2013. Euro Surveill 20:i20998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Patel M, Lee AD, Redd SB, Clemmons NS, McNall RJ, Cohn AC, Gastanaduy PA (2019) Increase in measles cases—United States, January 1–April 26, 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 68:402–404PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Phadke VK, Bednarczyk RA, Salmon DA, Omer SB (2016) Association between vaccine refusal and vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States: a review of measles and pertussis. JAMA 315:1149–1158PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lo NC, Hotez PJ (2017) Public health and economic consequences of vaccine hesitancy for measles in the United States. JAMA Pediatr 171:887–892PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Iizuka M, Nakagomi O, Chiba M, Ueda S, Masamune O (1995) Absence of measles virus in Crohn’s disease. Lancet 345:199PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Taylor B, Miller E, Lingam R, Andrews N, Simmons A, Stowe J (2002) Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. BMJ 324:393–396PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Deer B (2011) How the case against the MMR vaccine was fixed. BMJ 342:c5347PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Editors of The Lancet (2010) Retraction: ileal lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet 375:445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Strebel PM, Papania MJ, Gastañaduy PA, Goodson JL (2018) Measles vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM (eds) Plotkin’s vaccines. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 579–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bresee J, Fry AM, Sambhara S, Cox NJ (2018) Inactivated influenza vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM (eds) Plotkin’s vaccines. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 456–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    World Health Organization (2019) Global influenza strategy 2019–2030. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jenkin DC, Mahgoub H, Morales KF, Lambach P, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS (2019) A rapid evidence appraisal of influenza vaccination in health workers: an important policy in an area of imperfect evidence. Vaccine X 2:100036PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dini G, Toletone A, Sticchi L, Orsi A, Bragazzi NL, Durando P (2018) Influenza vaccination in healthcare workers: a comprehensive critical appraisal of the literature. Hum Vaccines Immunother 14:772–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    To KW, Lai A, Lee KC, Koh D, Lee SS (2016) Increasing the coverage of influenza vaccination in healthcare workers: review of challenges and solutions. J Hosp Infect 94:133–142PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Miles M, Ryman TK, Dietz V, Zell E, Luman ET (2013) Validity of vaccination cards and parental recall to estimate vaccination coverage: a systematic review of the literature. Vaccine 31:1560–1568PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gagneur A, Pinquier D, Quach C (2015) Immunization of preterm infants. Hum Vaccines Immunother 11:2556–2563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sisson H, Gardiner E, Watson R (2017) Vaccination timeliness in preterm infants: an integrative review of the literature. J Clin Nurs 26:4094–4104PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rubin LG, Levin MJ, Ljungman P, Davies EG, Avery R, Tomblyn M, Bousvaros A, Dhanireddy S, Sung L, Keyserling H, Kang I (2014) 2013 IDSA clinical practice guideline for vaccination of the immunocompromised host. Clin Infect Dis 58:309–318PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hotchkiss RS, Monneret G, Payen D (2013) Sepsis-induced immunosuppression: from cellular dysfunctions to immunotherapy. Nat Rev Immunol 13:862–874PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Francois B, Jeannet R, Daix T, Walton AH, Shotwell MS, Unsinger J, Monneret G, Rimmele T, Blood T, Morre M, Gregoire A, Mayo GA, Blood J, Durum SK, Sherwood ER, Hotchkiss RS (2018) Interleukin-7 restores lymphocytes in septic shock: the IRIS-7 randomized clinical trial. JCI Insight 3:e98960PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Jensen IJ, Sjaastad FV, Griffith TS, Badovinac VP (2018) Sepsis-induced T cell immunoparalysis: the ins and outs of impaired T cell immunity. J Immunol 200:1543–1553PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sjaastad FV, Condotta SA, Kotov JA, Pape KA, Dail C, Danahy DB, Kucaba TA, Tygrett LT, Murphy KA, Cabrera-Perez J, Waldschmidt TJ, Badovinac VP, Griffith TS (2018) Polymicrobial sepsis chronic immunoparalysis is defined by diminished ag-specific T cell-dependent B cell responses. Front Immunol 9:2532PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bruse N, Leijte GP, Pickkers P, Kox M (2019) New frontiers in precision medicine for sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 15:251–263PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Murray CJ, Ortblad KF, Guinovart C et al (2014) Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 384:1005–1070PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K et al (2012) Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380:2095–2128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pletz MW, Uebele J, Gotz K, Hagel S, Bekeredjian-Ding I (2016) Vaccines against major ICU pathogens: where do we stand? Curr Opin Crit Care 22:470–476PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Klugman KP, Black S (2018) Impact of existing vaccines in reducing antibiotic resistance: primary and secondary effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:12896–12901PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bechini A, Boccalini S, Ninci A, Zanobini P, Sartor G, Bonaccorsi G, Grazzini M, Bonanni P (2019) Childhood vaccination coverage in Europe: impact of different public health policies. Expert Rev Vaccines 18:693–701PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Holzmann H, Wiedermann U (2019) Mandatory vaccination: suited to enhance vaccination coverage in Europe? Euro Surveill 24:1900376PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Radetsky M (1999) Smallpox: a history of its rise and fall. Pediatr Infect Dis J 18:85–93PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM (2018) Plotkin’s vaccines. Elsevier, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Graves PM, Deeks JJ, Demicheli V, Jefferson T (2010) Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:Cd000974Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sinclair D, Abba K, Zaman K, Qadri F, Graves PM (2011) Oral vaccines for preventing cholera. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:Cd008603Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Milligan R, Paul M, Richardson M, Neuberger A (2018) Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5:Cd001261PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Edwards KM, Decker MD (2018) Pertussis vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM (eds) Plotkin’s vaccines. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 711–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Dye C, Scheele S, Dolin P, Pathania V, Raviglione MC (1999) Consensus statement. Global burden of tuberculosis: estimated incidence, prevalence, and mortality by country. WHO global surveillance and monitoring project. JAMA 282:677–686PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Demicheli V, Jefferson T, Ferroni E, Rivetti A, Di Pietrantonj C (2018) Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:Cd001269PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Demicheli V, Rivetti A, Debalini MG, Di Pietrantonj C (2012) Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD004407Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rubin SA (2018) Mumps vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM (eds) Plotkin’s vaccines. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 663–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Klugman KP, Dagan R, Malley R, Whitney CG (2018) Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal common protein vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM (eds) Plotkin’s vaccines. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 773–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Grabenstein JD, Musher DM (2018) Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM (eds) Plotkin’s vaccines. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 816–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Harper DM, DeMars LR (2017) HPV vaccines—a review of the first decade. Gynecol Oncol 146:196–204PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Luckett R, Feldman S (2016) Impact of 2-, 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccines on morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. Hum Vaccines Immunother 12:1332–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Suresh S, Upton J, Green M, Pham-Huy A, Posfay-Barbe KM, Michaels MG, Top KA, Avitzur Y, Burton C, Chong PP, Danziger-Isakov L, Dipchand AI, Hebert D, Kumar D, Morris SK, Nalli N, Ng VL, Nicholas SK, Robinson JL, Solomon M, Tapiero B, Verma A, Walter JE, Allen UD (2019) Live vaccines after pediatric solid organ transplant: proceedings of a consensus meeting, 2018. Pediatr Transplant 23:e13571PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1999) Impact of vaccines universally recommended for children—United States, 1990–1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 48:243–248Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1999) Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47:ii-92Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019) National notifiable diseases surveillance system, weekly tables of infectious disease data. Atlanta, GA. CDC division of health informatics and surveillance. Accessed 14 Aug 2019
  119. 119.
    Chen RT, Rastogi SC, Mullen JR, Hayes SW, Cochi SL, Donlon JA, Wassilak SG (1994) The vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS). Vaccine 12:542–550PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Infectious Diseases UnitRoyal Children’s Hospital MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Paediatrics, Division of General Paediatrics, Children’s Hospital, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Geneva HospitalsGenevaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Infection Control Programme, WHO Collaborating Centre on Patient Safety (Infection Control and Improving Practices), Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Geneva HospitalsGenevaSwitzerland
  4. 4.Centre for Vaccinology, Departments of Pathology-Immunology and PaediatricsUniversity of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations