Advertisement

Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 45, Issue 7, pp 928–938 | Cite as

New-onset atrial fibrillation in adult critically ill patients: a scoping review

  • Mik WetterslevEmail author
  • Nicolai Haase
  • Christian Hassager
  • Emilie P. Belley-Cote
  • William F. McIntyre
  • Youzhong An
  • Jiawei Shen
  • Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti
  • Fernando G. Zampieri
  • Helio Penna Guimaraes
  • Anders Granholm
  • Anders Perner
  • Morten Hylander Møller
Review

Abstract

Purpose

New-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) is common and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, its clinical importance and management in critically ill patients are not well described. The aim of this scoping review is to assess the epidemiology and management strategies of NOAF during critical illness.

Method

The review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for studies assessing the incidence, outcome and management strategies of NOAF in adult critically ill patients. The quality of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.

Results

A total of 99 studies were included, of which 79 were observational and 20 were interventional. The incidence of NOAF varied from 1.7% to 43.9% with considerable inter-population variation (very low quality of evidence). Commonly identified risk factors for NOAF included higher age, cardiovascular comorbidities and sepsis. The occurrence of NOAF was associated with adverse outcomes, including stroke, prolonged length of stay and mortality (very low quality of evidence). We found limited data on the optimal management strategy with no evidence for firm benefit or harm for any intervention (very low/low quality of evidence).

Conclusions

The definition and incidence of NOAF in critically ill patients varied considerably and many risk factors were identified. NOAF seemed to be associated with adverse outcomes, but data were very limited and current management strategies are not evidence-based.

Keywords

Atrial fibrillation Arrhythmias Cardiac Tachycardia Critical illness Intensive care units Risk factors Stroke Thromboembolism Mortality Review 

Notes

Author contributions

MW, NH, AP and MHM contributed to the study design. MW and NH contributed to the study selection. MW performed the data extraction. All the authors contributed to the revision of the manuscript.

Funding

MW’s salary is paid by the Research Council of Rigshospitalet.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors have received no specific funding for this study. The Department of Intensive Care at Rigshospitalet receives support for other research projects from Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Denmark; and the Novo Nordisk Foundation, Denmark.

Supplementary material

134_2019_5633_MOESM1_ESM.doc (662 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 662 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Chugh SS, Havmoeller R, Narayanan K, Singh D et al (2014) Worldwide epidemiology of atrial fibrillation: a global burden of disease 2010 study. Circulation 129:837–847CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zoni-Berisso M, Lercari F, Carazza T, Domenicucci S (2014) Epidemiology of atrial fibrillation: European perspective. Clin Epidemiol 6:213–220CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stewart S, Hart CL, Hole DJ, McMurray JJ (2002) A population-based study of the long-term risks associated with atrial fibrillation: 20-year follow-up of the Renfrew/Paisley study. Am J Med 113:359–364CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McIntyre WF, Um KJ, Cheung CC, Belley-Cote EP et al (2018) Atrial fibrillation detected initially during acute medical illness: a systematic review. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 8:130–141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bosch NA, Cimini J, Walkey AJ (2018) Atrial fibrillation in the ICU. Chest 154:1424–1434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prystowsky EN, Padanilam BJ, Fogel RI (2015) Treatment of atrial fibrillation. JAMA 314:278–288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sibley S, Muscedere J (2015) New-onset atrial fibrillation in critically ill patients. Can Respir J 22:179–182CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O’Brien KK, Colquhoun H et al (2018) PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation. Ann Intern Med 169:467–473CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Higgins JP, Altman DG, Gotzsche PC, Juni P, Moher D et al (2011) The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ 343:d5928CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sterne JA, Hernan MA, Reeves BC, Savovic J, Berkman ND et al (2016) ROBINS-I: a tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions. BMJ 355:i4919CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Balshem H, Helfand M, Schunemann HJ, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Brozek J, Vist GE, Falck-Ytter Y et al (2011) GRADE guidelines: 3. Rating the quality of evidence. J Clin Epidemiol 64:401–406CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ambrus DB, Benjamin EJ, Bajwa EK, Hibbert KA, Walkey AJ (2015) Risk factors and outcomes associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation during acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Crit Care 30:994–997CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Annane D, Sebille V, Duboc D, Le Heuzey JY, Sadoul N, Bouvier E, Bellissant E (2008) Incidence and prognosis of sustained arrhythmias in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178:20–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arrigo M, Ishihara S, Feliot E, Rudiger A, Deye N, Cariou A, Guidet B, Jaber S, Leone M, Resche-Rigon M, Vieillard Baron A et al (2018) New-onset atrial fibrillation in critically ill patients and its association with mortality: a report from the FROG-ICU study. Int J Cardiol 266:95–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Arora S, Lang I, Nayyar V, Stachowski E, Ross DL (2007) Atrial fibrillation in a tertiary care multidisciplinary intensive care unit–incidence and risk factors. Anaesth Intensive Care 35:707–713CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Artucio H, Pereira M (1990) Cardiac arrhythmias in critically ill patients: epidemiologic study. Crit Care Med 18:1383–1388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aydogdu M, Hanazay C, Aldag Y, Baha A et al (2017) Effects of atrial fibrillation on intensive care unit outcomes in patients with respiratory failure. J Med Surg Intensive Care Med 8:32–38Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chelazzi C, Villa G, Giugni D, De Gaudio AR (2011) Atrial fibrillation in the surgical critical patients: associated clinical factors and outcome. Eur J Anaesthesiol 28:184 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fernando Montenegro Sa F, Ruivo C, Antunes A, Jesus C et al (2016) Predicting atrial fibrillation in critically ill patients admitted in a general intensive care unit: is BNP really helpful? Eur J Heart Fail 18:205 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ganguly S, Brown T, Pritchett C, Edie S, Allan P, Spivey M (2015) Atrial fibrillation in intensive care. Intensive Care Med Exp 3:A209 (Abstract)CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goodman S, Shirov T, Weissman C (2007) Supraventricular arrhythmias in intensive care unit patients: short and long-term consequences. Anesth Analg 104:880–886CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jenkins SA, Griffin R (2016) New-onset atrial fibrillation in intensive care: incidence, management and outcome. Crit Care 20:143 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kanji S, Williamson DR, Yaghchi BM, Albert M, McIntyre L (2012) Epidemiology and management of atrial fibrillation in medical and noncardiac surgical adult intensive care unit patients. J Crit Care 27:326.e1–326.e8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Makrygiannis SS, Margariti A, Rizikou D, Lampakis M, Vangelis S et al (2014) Incidence and predictors of new-onset atrial fibrillation in noncardiac intensive care unit patients. J Crit Care 29:697.e691–697.e695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Makrygiannis SS, Rizikou D, Patsourakos NG, Lampakis M et al (2018) New-onset atrial fibrillation and clinical outcome in non-cardiac intensive care unit patients. Aust Crit Care 31:274–277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moss TJ, Calland JF, Enfield KB, Gomez-Manjarres DC et al (2017) New-onset atrial fibrillation in the critically ill. Crit Care Med 45:790–797CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nakanishi M, Kuriyama A, Kaihara T (2015) Incidence and prognosis of new-onset atrial fibrillation in a mixed ICU: an observational study. Crit Care Med 43:23–24 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nietupski R, Bellamy C, Miano T, Mikkelsen M, Candeloro C (2014) Continuation of amiodarone at discharge for new-onset atrial fibrillation in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 42:A1403 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schoaps R, Donovan J, Hazard S, Karamchandani K (2016) Anticoagulation on hospital discharge in critically ill patients with new-onset atrial fibrillation. Crit Care Med 44:128 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shaver CM, Chen W, Janz DR, May AK, Bernard GR, Darbar D et al (2015) Atrial fibrillation is an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 43:2104–2111CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sleeswijk ME, Tulleken JE, Van Noord T, Meertens JH, Ligtenberg JJ et al (2008) Efficacy of magnesium-amiodarone step-up scheme in critically ill patients with new-onset atrial fibrillation: a prospective observational study. J Intensive Care Med 23:61–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tasdemir G, Girgin NK, Kaderli AA, Cizmeci E, Iscimen R, Kahveci F et al (2015) Arrhythmia incidence and risk factors in critically ill patients. Crit Care 19:54 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tober K, Quasim T, Kinsella J (2012) Atrial fibrillation; haemodynamics and mortality in postoperative patients on a general intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 38:A0520 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Trottier S, Bowie D, Stovall M (2012) Acute atrial fibrillation in the ICU: therapeutic interventions and hospital course. Crit Care Med 40:A286 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Clayton B, Ball S, Read J, Waddy S (2018) Risk of thromboembolism in patients developing critical illness-associated atrial fibrillation. Clin Med 18:282–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Moskowitz A, Chen KP, Cooper AZ, Chahin A et al (2017) Management of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response in the intensive care unit: a secondary analysis of electronic health record data. Shock 48:436–440CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Christian SA, Schorr C, Ferchau L, Jarbrink ME, Parrillo JE, Gerber DR (2008) Clinical characteristics and outcomes of septic patients with new-onset atrial fibrillation. J Crit Care 23:532–536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Guenancia C, Binquet C, Laurent G, Vinault S, Bruyere R, Prin S et al (2014) Incidence and predictors of new-onset atrial fibrillation in septic shock patients in a medical ICU: data from 7-day Holter ECG monitoring. PLoS One 10:e0127168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jaffer F, Anand S, Ajay-Obe A, Parbtani R, Doraiswamy V, Malo J (2016) Use of amiodarone in management of atrial tachyarrhythmia in septic shock. Chest 150:A361 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kane S, Hanes S (2014) Impact of hydrocortisone on atrial fibrillation in septic shock. Crit Care Med 42:A1588 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Klein Klouwenberg PM, Kuipers S, Ong PS, Peelen LM, Bonten MJ et al (2017) Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of new-onset atrial fibrillation in critically ill patients with sepsis. A cohort study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 195:205–211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Koyfman L, Brotfain E, Kutz R, Frenkel A, Schwartz A, Boniel A et al (2015) Epidemiology of new-onset paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in the general intensive care unit population and after discharge from ICU. A retrospective epidemiological study. Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 47:309–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Launey Y, Lasocki S, Asehnoune K, Gaudriot B, Chassier C, Cinotti R et al (2017) Impact of low-dose hydrocortisone on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with septic shock. J Intensive Care Med.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0885066617696847 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lewis O, Ngwa J, Gillum RF, Davis W, Poddar V, Adams GR et al (2016) Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of new onset supraventricular arrhythmias in African American patients with severe sepsis. Ethn Dis 26:205–212CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liu WC, Lin WY, Lin CS, Huang HB, Lin TC, Cheng SM, Yang SP et al (2016) Prognostic impact of restored sinus rhythm in patients with sepsis and new-onset atrial fibrillation. Crit Care 20:373CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Marinheiro AR, Amador P, Ribeiro R, Alves I, Domingos G et al (2016) Incidence, management and impact of atrial fibrillation in septic shock. Eur Heart J 5:60–61Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Meierhenrich R, Steinhilber E, Eggermann C, Weiss M, Voglic S et al (2010) Incidence and prognostic impact of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with septic shock: a prospective observational study. Crit Care 14:R108CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Salman S, Bajwa A, Gajic O, Afessa B (2008) Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in critically ill patients with sepsis. J Intensive Care Med 23:178–183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Seemann A, Boissier F, Razazi K, Carteaux G, de Prost N et al (2015) New-onset supraventricular arrhythmia during septic shock: prevalence, risk factors and prognosis. Ann Intensive Care 5:27CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shah A, Pillai MV, Gandhi U, Eden E, Shapiro J (2014) New-onset atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter in medical intensive care unit (MICU) patients with severe sepsis is associated with stroke and increased mortality. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 189:A3114 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Swamy L, Ambrus DB, Walkey AJ (2015) Electrocardiographic predictors of new-onset atrial fibrillation among critically ill patients with sepsis: a case-control study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 191:A6256 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Walkey AJ, Wiener RS, Ghobrial JM, Curtis LH, Benjamin EJ (2011) Incident stroke and mortality associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients hospitalized with severe sepsis. JAMA 306:2248–2254CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Walkey AJ, Greiner MA, Heckbert SR, Jensen PN, Piccini JP et al (2013) Atrial fibrillation among medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with sepsis: incidence and risk factors. Am Heart J 165:949–955CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Walkey AJ, Hammill BG, Curtis LH, Benjamin EJ (2014) Long-term outcomes following development of new-onset atrial fibrillation during sepsis. Chest 146:1187–1195CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Walkey AJ, Evans SR, Winter MR, Benjamin EJ (2016) Practice patterns and outcomes of treatments for atrial fibrillation during sepsis: a propensity-matched cohort study. Chest 149:74–83CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wells GL, Morris PE (2011) Incidence and prognosis of atrial fibrillation in patients with sepsis. Cardiol Res 2:293–297PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cheng CA, Cheng CG, Lin HC, Lee JT, Lin HC, Cheng CC et al (2017) New-onset atrial fibrillation-related ischemic stroke occurring after hospital discharge in septicemia survivors. QJM 110:453–457CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bender JS (1996) Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in the surgical intensive care unit: an under-recognized event. Am Surg 62:73–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brathwaite D, Weissman C (1998) The new onset of atrial arrhythmias following major noncardiothoracic surgery is associated with increased mortality. Chest 114:462–468CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brown M, Nassoiy S, Chaney W, Plackett TP, Blackwell RH et al (2018) Impact and treatment success of new-onset atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate development in the surgical intensive care unit. J Surg Res 229:66–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chelazzi C, Giugni D, Villa G, De Gaudio AR (2012) Postoperative atrial fibrillation and sepsis. Eur J Anaesthesiol 29:181 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gerlach AT, Kane-Gill SL, Dasta JF, Steinberg S, Martin LC, Cook CH (2008) Diltiazem versus amiodarone for new-onset atrial arrhythmias in non-cardiac post surgical patients: a cohort study. Crit Care Shock 11:94–106Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Knotzer H, Mayr A, Ulmer H, Lederer W, Schobersberger W et al (2000) Tachyarrhythmias in a surgical intensive care unit: a case-controlled epidemiologic study. Intensive Care Med 26:908–914CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Seguin P, Signouret T, Laviolle B, Branger B, Malledant Y (2004) Incidence and risk factors of atrial fibrillation in a surgical intensive care unit. Critical Care Med 32:722–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Xia VW, Worapot A, Huang S, Dhillon A, Gudzenko V, Backon A et al (2015) Postoperative atrial fibrillation in liver transplantation. Am J Transpl 15:687–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wenner JB, Bryson GL, Redpath CJ (2015) Peri-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) complicating non-cardiac surgery: a case–control pilot study. Eur Heart J 36:742 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yoshida T, Uchino S, Yokota T, Fujii T, Uezono S, Takinami M (2018) The impact of sustained new-onset atrial fibrillation on mortality and stroke incidence in critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study. J Crit Care 44:267–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Yokota T, Uchino S, Yoshida T, Fujii T, Takinami M (2018) Predictors for sustained new-onset atrial fibrillation in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study. J Anesth 32:681–687CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bilotta F, Pizzichetta F, Fiorani L, Paoloni FP, Delfini R, Rosa G (2009) Risk index for peri-operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing open intracranial neurosurgical procedures. Anaesthesia 64:503–507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Duby JJ, Heintz SJ, Bajorek SA, Heintz BH, Durbin-Johnson BP et al (2017) Prevalence and course of atrial fibrillation in critically ill trauma patients. J Intensive Care Med 32:140–145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hadjizacharia P, O’Keeffe T, Brown CV, Inaba K, Salim A et al (2011) Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes for atrial arrhythmias in trauma patients. Am Surg 77:634–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Seguin P, Laviolle B, Maurice A, Leclercq C, Malledant Y (2006) Atrial fibrillation in trauma patients requiring intensive care. Intensive Care Med 32:398–404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Amar D, Zhang H, Leung DH, Roistacher N, Kadish AH (2002) Older age is the strongest predictor of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Anesthesiology 96:352–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Amar D, Zhang H, Heerdt PM, Park B, Fleisher M, Thaler HT (2005) Statin use is associated with a reduction in atrial fibrillation after noncardiac thoracic surgery independent of C-reactive protein. Chest 128:3421–3427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Amar D, Goenka A, Zhang H, Park B, Thaler HT (2006) Leukocytosis and increased risk of atrial fibrillation after general thoracic surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 82:1057–1061CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Amar D, Zhang H, Shi W, Downey RJ, Bains MS, Park BJ, Flores R et al (2012) Brain natriuretic peptide and risk of atrial fibrillation after thoracic surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 144:1249–1253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Basting A, Bullard H, Sokol S, Shahul S, Tung A (2016) Effect of bronchodilator therapy on postoperative atrial fibrillation after thoracic surgery. Crit Care Med 44:112 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Imperatori A, Mariscalco G, Riganti G, Rotolo N, Conti V, Dominioni L (2012) Atrial fibrillation after pulmonary lobectomy for lung cancer affects long-term survival in a prospective single-center study. J Cardiothorac Surg 7:4CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Michalopoulou H, Stamatis PS, Michaloliakou M, Baltagiannis N et al (2012) Atrial fibrillation following major noncardiac thoracic surgery: significance and impact on morbidity. Crit Care 16:168–169 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Panchabhai TS, Zell K, Budev MM, Wang X, Wazni O, Valapour M (2015) Early post-operative atrial fibrillation in lung transplant recipients: an analysis of risk factors and clinical outcomes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 191:A1421 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Raghavan D, Gao A, Ahn C, Torres F, Mohanka M, Bollineni S et al (2015) Contemporary analysis of incidence of post-operative atrial fibrillation, its predictors, and association with clinical outcomes in lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transpl 34:563–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bahouth F, Mutlak D, Furman M, Musallam A, Hammerman H, Lessick J et al (2010) Relationship of functional mitral regurgitation to new-onset atrial fibrillation in acute myocardial infarction. Heart 96:683–688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Baumfeld Y, Novack V, Almog Y (2013) Atrial fibrillation in medical intensive care unit patients: characteristics and consequences. Harefuah 152(520–523):564Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Carrera P, Thongprayoon C, Cheungpasitporn W, Iyer VN, Moua T (2016) Epidemiology and outcome of new-onset atrial fibrillation in the medical intensive care unit. J Crit Care 36:102–106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Chen AY, Sokol SS, Kress JP, Lat I (2015) New-onset atrial fibrillation is an independent predictor of mortality in medical intensive care unit patients. Ann Pharmacother 49:523–527CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pangrazzi M, Lat I, Kress J (2012) Characterizing the impact of atrial fibrillation in the medical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 40:188 (Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Preslaski C, Lat I, Mieure K, Bentley L, Lund J, Hall J, Kress J (2011) The impact of new-onset atrial fibrillation on clinical outcomes in the medical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 39:168 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sekhri A, Aronow WS, Sekhri V, Palaniswamy C, Chandy D (2009) Treatment of patients with supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in a medical intensive care unit. Compr Ther 35:188–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tongyoo S, Permpikul C, Haemin R, Epichath N (2013) Predicting factors, incidence and prognosis of cardiac arrhythmia in medical, non-acute coronary syndrome, critically ill patients. J Med Assoc Thail 96:S238–S245Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Terzano C, Romani S, Conti V, Paone G, Oriolo F, Vitarelli A (2014) Atrial fibrillation in the acute, hypercapnic exacerbations of COPD. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 18:2908–2917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Amar D, Roistacher N, Rusch VW, Leung DH, Ginsburg I, Zhang H et al (2000) Effects of diltiazem prophylaxis on the incidence and clinical outcome of atrial arrhythmias after thoracic surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 120:790–798CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ciszewski P, Tyczka J, Nadolski J, Roszak M, Dyszkiewicz W (2013) Comparative efficacy and usefulness of acebutolol and diltiazem for the prevention of atrial fibrillation during perioperative time in patients undergoing pulmonary resection. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 61:365–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Khalil MA, Al-Agaty AE, Ali WG, Abdel Azeem MS (2013) A comparative study between amiodarone and magnesium sulfate as antiarrhythmic agents for prophylaxis against atrial fibrillation following lobectomy. J Anesth 27:56–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mieghem W, Tits G, Demuynck K, Lacquet L, Deneffe G et al (1996) Verapamil as prophylactic treatment for atrial fibrillation after lung operations. Ann Thorac Surg 61:1083–1085CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tisdale JE, Wroblewski HA, Wall DS, Rieger KM, Hammoud ZT et al (2009) A randomized trial evaluating amiodarone for prevention of atrial fibrillation after pulmonary resection. Ann Thorac Surg 88:886–893CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tisdale JE, Wroblewski HA, Wall DS, Rieger KM, Hammoud ZT et al (2010) A randomized, controlled study of amiodarone for prevention of atrial fibrillation after transthoracic esophagectomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 140:45–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Andrivet P, Boubakri E, Dove PJ, Mach V, Vu Ngoc C (1994) A clinical study of amiodarone as a single oral dose in patients with recent-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia. Eur Heart J 15:1396–1402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Andrivet P, Mach V, Gnoc CV (1993) A clinical study of intravenous cibenzoline in selected patients with recent-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia. Chest 103:1515–1519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Barranco F, Sanchez M, Rodriguez J, Guerrero M (1994) Efficacy of flecainide in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias and respiratory insufficiency. Intensive Care Med 20:42–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Chapman MJ, Moran JL, O’Fathartaigh MS, Peisach AR, Cunningham DN (1993) Management of atrial tachyarrhythmias in the critically ill: a comparison of intravenous procainamide and amiodarone. Intensive Care Med 19:48–52CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Faniel R, Schoenfeld P (1983) Efficacy of i.v. amiodarone in converting rapid atrial fibrillation and flutter to sinus rhythm in intensive care patients. Eur Heart J 4:180–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Moran JL, Gallagher J, Peake SL, Cunningham DN, Salagaras M et al (1995) Parenteral magnesium sulfate versus amiodarone in the therapy of atrial tachyarrhythmias: a prospective, randomized study. Crit Care Med 23:1816–1824CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Noc M, Stajer D, Horvat M (1990) Intravenous amiodarone versus verapamil for acute conversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Am J Cardiol 65:679–680CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Platia EV, Michelson EL, Porterfield JK, Das G (1990) Intravenous esmolol versus verapamil for prompt treatment of atrial fibrillation or flutter. Am J Cardiol 63:925–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Varriale P, Sedighi A (2000) Acute management of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter in the critical care unit: should it be ibutilide? Clin Cardiol 23:265–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Balser JR, Martinez EA, Winters BD, Perdue PW, Clarke AW et al (1998) Beta-adrenergic blockade accelerates conversion of postoperative supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Anesthesiology 89:1052–1059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Iberti TJ, Benjamin E, Paluch TA, Gentili DR, Gabrielson GV (1986) Use of constant-infusion verapamil for the treatment of postoperative supraventricular tachycardia. Crit Care Med 14:283–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Karth GD, Geppert A, Haumer M, Neunteufl T, Innerhofer P et al (2001) Amiodarone versus diltiazem for rate control in critically ill patients with atrial tachyarrhythmias. Crit Care Med 29:1149–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Davey MJ, Teubner D (2005) A randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate, in addition to usual care, for rate control in atrial fibrillation. Ann Emerg Med 45:347–353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Siu CW, Lau CP, Lee WL, Lam KF, Tse HF (2009) Intravenous diltiazem is superior to intravenous amiodarone or digoxin for achieving ventricular rate control in patients with acute uncomplicated atrial fibrillation. Crit Care Med 37:2174–2179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Boos CJ, Anderson RA, Lip GY (2006) Is atrial fibrillation an inflammatory disorder? Eur Heart J 27:136–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kourliouros A, Savelieva I, Kiotsekoglou A, Jahangiri M, Camm J (2009) Current concepts in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Am Heart J 157:243–252CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB (1991) Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: Framingham study. Stroke 22:983–988CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Odutayo A, Wong CX, Hsiao AJ, Hopewell S, Altman DG, Emdin CA (2016) Atrial fibrillation and risks of cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and death: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 354:i4482CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Clark DM, Plumb VJ, Epstein AE, Kay GN (1997) Hemodynamic effects of an irregular sequence of ventricular cycle lengths during atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 30:1039–1045CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    McCollam PL, Parker RB, Beckman KJ, Hariman RJ, Bauman JL (1989) Proarrhythmia: a paradoxic response to antiarrhythmic agents. Pharmacotherapy 9:144–153CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Krishnan V, Murray P (2003) Pharmacologic issues in the critically ill. Clin Chest Med 24:671–688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kirchhof P, Benussi S, Kotecha D, Ahlsson A, Atar D, Casadei B et al (2016) 2016 ESC guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS. Eur Heart J 37:2893–2962CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Van Gelder IC, Hagens VE, Bosker HA, Kingma JH, Kamp O et al (2002) A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with recurrent persistent atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 347:1834–1840CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wyse DG, Waldo AL, DiMarco JP, Domanski MJ, Rosenberg Y et al (2002) A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 347:1825–1833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Vieillard-Baron A, Boyd J (2018) Non-antiarrhythmic interventions in new onset and paroxysmal sepsis-related atrial fibrillation. Intensive Care Med 44:94–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Guo Y, Lip GY, Apostolakis S (2012) Inflammation in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 60:2263–2270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Labbe V, Ederhy S, Fartoukh M, Cohen A (2016) Erratum: should we administrate anticoagulants to critically ill patients with new onset supraventricular arrhythmias? Arch Cardiovasc Dis 109:656–658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Geerts W, Selby R (2003) Prevention of venous thromboembolism in the ICU. Chest 124:357–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mik Wetterslev
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nicolai Haase
    • 1
  • Christian Hassager
    • 2
  • Emilie P. Belley-Cote
    • 3
  • William F. McIntyre
    • 3
  • Youzhong An
    • 4
  • Jiawei Shen
    • 4
  • Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti
    • 5
  • Fernando G. Zampieri
    • 5
  • Helio Penna Guimaraes
    • 5
  • Anders Granholm
    • 1
  • Anders Perner
    • 1
  • Morten Hylander Møller
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Intensive Care, 4131Copenhagen University Hospital, RigshospitaletCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyCopenhagen University HospitalCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Population Health Research InstituteMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Critical Care MedicinePeking University People’s HospitalBeijingChina
  5. 5.Research Institute, HCor-Hospital Do CoraçãoSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations